Drought

Virtual technical advisory support to Nigeria

Dates: 

Tue, 01/09/2020 to Wed, 30/09/2020

Host Institution: 

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

At the request of the National Emergency Management Agency and the National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria, UN-SPIDER conducted three webinars to present UN-SPIDER resources and showcase how space technologies could support flood and drought monitoring efforts. During the virtual meetings, the two agencies discussed their use of geospatial data and geographical information systems in disaster management.

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Virtual technical advisory support to Mozambique

Dates: 

Wed, 12/08/2020 to Tue, 22/12/2020

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

UN-SPIDER and the Federal University of Santa Maria of Brazil (a UN-SPIDER regional support office) conducted three webinars for staff at the National Institute for Disaster Management, the National Meteorological Institute, the Regional Water Administration Authorities, the Ministry of Public Works, Housing and Water Resources, the Mozambique Red Cross and universities in order to raise awareness of the applications of novel satellite technologies and products to monitor droughts and map the geographical extent of floods. The National Institute for Disaster Management, the Regional Water Administration Authorities and the Ministry of Public Works, Housing and Water Resources gave presentations on their efforts to monitor floods and droughts; the development of an information system on arid and semi-arid areas; the use of the Africa risk capacity tool by the National Institute for Disaster Management; and efforts by the Ministry of Public Works, Housing and Water Resources to monitor droughts.

UN-SPIDER, together with the National Institute for Disaster Management, the National Meteorological Institute and other institutions, including universities, discussed the establishment of a technical, inter-institutional team that would focus on the generation of geospatial information to support disaster management using geographical information systems and Earth observation applications. 

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Virtual technical advisory support to the Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Dates: 

Mon, 19/10/2020

Host Institution: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

The UN-SPIDER mission was scheduled to take place in Savannakhet Province from 11 to 15 May 2020. The purpose of the mission was to offer technical advisory support with a view to improving disaster risk management, early warning systems, emergency response and institutional capacity. However, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, the mission has been postponed and a virtual format through which to deliver the mission’s objectives is being sought. 

A high-level technical advisory meeting was conducted on 19 October 2020 and was attended by the Member of Parliament and Vice-President of the Economic, Technology and Environment Committee of National Assembly, the Vice-Governor of Savannakhet Province and other senior officials. Representatives of two 

UN-SPIDER regional support offices, the International Water Management Institute and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre also attended the meeting.

As a follow up, a joint project proposal between UN-SPIDER regional support offices and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic will be prepared for flood and drought monitoring, early warning for disaster preparedness and the building of resilience among smallholder farmers.

Disaster type: 

Sri Lanka - Institutional Strengthening Mission

UN-SPIDER conducted a Institutional Strengthening Mission in Sri Lanka from 24 to 28 April 2017. Th ISM was a follow-up to the technical advisory mission to Sri Lanka in 2011. Both the original mission and the follow-up activity were hosted by the Ministry of Disaster Management of Sri Lanka and its associated Disaster Management Centre.

Dates: 

Mon, 24/04/2017 to Fri, 28/04/2017

Host Institution: 

Sri Lanka Disaster Management Centre

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

As part of the ISM, UN-SPIDER and the Disaster Management Centre conducted a three-day training course at the recommendation of UN-SPIDER for the members of the rapid mapping inter-institutional team established by the Centre. The mission also provided an opportunity to participate in the first meeting of the Advisory Board for the National Risk Assessment Project that the Disaster Management Centre was conducting. In addition, the mission enabled to further its efforts to provide technical advisory support to Sri Lanka; to make government agencies, universities and non-governmental organizations aware of the UN-SPIDER knowledge portal and its contents, including specific recommended practices relevant to Sri Lanka; to raise awareness of the usefulness of the Standard Vegetation Index and the Vegetation Condition Index in drought early warning efforts. Following the successful model of the Dominican Republic and countries in Central America, UN-SPIDER recommended the establishment of a technical inter-institutional team that could focus its efforts in the processing of satellite imagery to generate relevant and timely geospatial information. 

Disaster type: 

Recommended Practice: Drought monitoring using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Observing rainfall is an essential component of detecting droughts and developing drought early warning systems. This recommended practice shows how to use satellite data to analyse precipitation timelines to gain information about the spatial ditribution of rainfall anomalies using the Standarized Precipitation Index (SPI).

 

 

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The purpose of this recommended practice is to monitor precipitation anomalies giving the possibility to analyse past drought events and recent rainfalls.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought

Test Site: 

South Africa

Context: 

Since 2018 several countries in southern Africa are facing an ongoing drought. As a result, crop- and livestock farmers had to face losses. Giving farmers, authorities and insurances information about the spatial distribution of drought like conditions and its severity might help to mitigate financial losses and anticipate the region-specific aid.

Applicability: 

The methodology as such can be applied globally. However, the SPI values might give missleading information if the timescale for the SPI calculation is set too short due to natural fluctuations of precipitation.

Ethiopia - Institutional Strengthening Mission

Upon the request of the Government of Ethiopia, UN-SPIDER carried out a Institutional Strengthening Mission to Addis Ababa from 26 to 30 August 2019 to support the country in making use of the benefits of space technology for drought early warning. The team of experts from UN-SPIDER and the Centre for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL) at the University of Bonn, a UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office, met a wide range of stakeholders in the country to identify how space-based information is currently used in the context of disaster management and drought monitoring in particular, and to make recommendations as to how to further strengthen the use of space technologies in these areas.

Dates: 

Mon, 26/08/2019 to Fri, 30/08/2019

Host Institution: 

Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute (ESSTI)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

A team of experts from UN-SPIDER and the Centre for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL) at the University of Bonn, a UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office

Mission Profile: 

As part of the week-long mission, UN-SPIDER and the Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute (ESSTI) convened a national workshop on “Drought Monitoring, Forecasting and Prediction in Ethiopia Using Satellite-driven and In-situ-based Measured Products”. The goal of the workshop was to discuss the establishment of a drought monitoring and prediction center in Ethiopia in order to develop integrated meteorological, hydrological and agricultural drought forecasting services. It also seeked to strengthen scientific networking in the research areas of drought and capitalize on Ethiopia’s effort to utilize space products for combating recurrent drought of the country. The workshop brought together nearly 40 participants from a wide range of national and international institutions addressing questions related to monitoring of natural hazards; space and geospatial information; risk and disaster management; and agriculture and food security.

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Tunisia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of, and in coordination with the National Civil Protection Office of Tunisia, UN-SPIDER is conducting a Technical Advisory Mission to Tunisia from 4 to 6 March 2020 to identify the needs of the country to fully take advantage of space-based information for disaster management. In order to discuss the use of space-based information for risk and disaster management to subsequently make recommendations on improvements, the expert team meets with key disaster management authorities in the country.

The mission is conducted with the support of experts from the Algerian Space Agency (ASAL); the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA); the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA); the National Observatory of Athens (NOA); and an expert on the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. The mission team is also benefiting from the support of the Chief of Space Applications of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.

As part of the mission, the team of experts will visit several institutions including the National Office of Civil Protection; the Directorate General for Forests of the Ministry of Agriculture; the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar; the National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia; the National Institute of Meteorology; as well as at the Ministry of Local Affairs and Environment. Meetings will also be conducted with representatives of the National Cartographic and Remote Sensing Centre of Tunisia and other organizations. In addition, the TAM team will meet the United Nations Country Team in Tunisia, which supports disaster management efforts in the country.

During the TAM, a workshop with over 20 participants from nine institutions will take place in order to present the UN-SPIDER programme to Tunisian counterparts involved in disaster management, and encourage inter-institutional cooperation and sharing of geospatial information among them.

UN-SPIDER aims at ensuring all countries have the capacity to use all types of space-based information to support risk and disaster management efforts. To make sure that all interested stakeholders can benefit from this information in the most effective way possible, UN-SPIDER provides Technical Advisory Support to Member States through missions such as this one.

The Algerian Space Agency (ASAL), the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) and the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) are UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office.

On request of the Tunisian Government and immediately after the technical advisory mission, UN-SPIDER conducted a three-day hands-on training on the use of Sentinel-1 radar data for flood mapping. In order to further strengthen the capacity of Tunisia to use space technologies for disaster management, UN-SPIDER will continue to encourage the participation of Tunisian institutions in its conferences and expert meetings. In addition, together with its regional and international partners, UN-SPIDER will provide training on forest fire mapping in the medium term. 

Dates: 

Wed, 04/03/2020 to Fri, 06/03/2020

Host Institution: 

National Office for Civil Protection (ONPC), Ministry of the Interior of Tunisia

Country/Region: 

Mission Team: 

  • Alexandru Badea, Romanian Space Agency (ROSA)
  • Kamel Tichouiti, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL)
  • Alexia Tsouni, National Observatory of Athens (NOA)
  • Francoise Villette, Expert on Earth observation and disaster management, and on Copernicus EMS
  • Luc St-Pierre, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)
  • Coen Bussink, UN-SPIDER (Head of Delegation)
  • Radu Botez, UN-SPIDER

Mission Profile: 

Three-day mission with a stakeholder workshop that brought together 21 participants from 13 Tunisian institutions, in addition to the mission team.

Mission Findings: 

During the mission, the team was able to observe the common use of GIS by the consulted institutions, including ONPC, for the visualization of statistics on risks and occurrences of disasters. In addition, some institutions already regularly use satellite images, for example to analyze burnt areas after forest fires, while universities provide advanced training in geomatics. With regard to disaster risk reduction, space data and technologies are included in a draft DRR strategy, which is currently in the process of being adopted. By becoming an authorized user of the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” and by benefiting from maps floods in the area of Nabeul in 2018 created by the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (Copernicus EMS), Tunisia is mobilizing relevant international networks and mechanisms to access information products based on satellite data during disasters.

Mission Recommendations: 

The recommendations made by the team aim to further encourage the institutionalization of the use and sharing of satellite data and images through disaster risk management in Tunisia. The recommendations are described in more detail in the corresponding sections of this report and are in short:

Policy and coordination

  • Strengthen the legal framework and collaboration for geospatial information
  • Finalize the project for the creation of a national infrastructure for geographic information (INIG)

Access, availability and sharing of data

  • Create an archive of available satellite images and accelerate their exploitation for disaster management purposes
  • To deepen risk analysis in the territory by expanding and integrating the data repository and the tools used to publish the data more effectively
  • Prepare information for rapid response disaster mapping
  • Strengthen disaster risk reduction through mapping exercises

Capacity-building and institutional strengthening

  • Ensure the presence of adequate human resources
  • Use local and international geomatics training resources for capacity building 

Strengthening early warning

  • Establish a legal framework for early warning
  • Ensure coordinated and cooperative early warning
  • Strengthen emergency response
  • Make field data collection more efficient and accurate
  • Use international mechanisms and regional partnerships to obtain relevant maps and satellite imagery during disasters
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PDF icon Tunisia TAM - Data sources booklet969.11 KB

Ecuador - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As part of the technical advisory support it provides to countries worldwide, UN-SPIDER carried out an Institutional Strengthening Mission to Republic of Ecuador from 8-12 April 2019 upon the request of the government. This activity was jointly organized by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), through its United Nations Platform for space-based information for disaster management and emergency response (UN-SPIDER) and the National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador. The Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia (IGAC) and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil supported the mission.

Dates: 

Mon, 08/04/2019 to Fri, 12/04/2019

Host Institution: 

National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Representatives from UN-SPIDER, the Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

Mission Profile: 

The mission was a follow-up activity to the UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) conducted in October 2009 at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Commerce and Integration (MRECI), as Ecuador is exposed to a variety of geologic and hydro-meteorological hazards, including many active volcanoes. In addition, it is exposed to climatic events such as El Niño and La Niña.

During the five-day mission, UN-SPIDER carried out a training programme on "Analysis of satellite images to monitor floods, droughts and forest fires". The programme brought together various institutions that were convened by the National Risk and Emergency Management Service. The objective was to train participants in the fundamentals, methods of remote sensing and digital processing of satellite images to obtain useful information for monitoring floods, droughts and forest fires.

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Ghana - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As a follow-up activitity to its 2013 Technical Advisory Mission to the Western African country, UN-SPIDER conducted a week-long Institutional Strengthening Mission (ISM) to Ghana. The mission followed an invitation of the Government of Ghana and was hosted by the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO).

Dates: 

Mon, 15/10/2018 to Fri, 19/10/2018

Host Institution: 

National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Organizers UN-SPIDER and National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)
   
Participants Ghana National Fire Service (GNFS)
  Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (CERSGIS)
  Ghana Meteorological Department (G-MET)
  Ghana Survey Department (GSD) 
  Ghana Armed Forces (GAF)
  Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA)
  Hydrological Services Department (HSD)
  Ghana Police Service (GPS)
  Water Resources Commission (WRC)
  Ghana Geological Survey Authority
  Health Services Department Ghana 

 

Mission Profile: 

The aims of the UN-SPIDER Institutional Strengthening Mission (ISM) to Ghana were

The mission consisted of two parts:

Inter-institutional Seminar

The seminar brought together nearly 50  participants from several government agencies in including NADMO, the Ghana Geological Survey Authority, the Survey Mapping Division, the Police Department, the Land Use Spatial Planning Authority, the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, the Ghana Irrigation Authority, the Water Resources Commission, the Ghana Armed Forces and the National Fire Service as well as the Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of the University of Ghana.

The seminar allowed participants to exchange information on their activities, on joint efforts with NADMO and on the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems in their routine tasks.

Training course

The training course was organized and attended by 25 participants from several government agencies and the University of Ghana. Participants were trained in the use of specific step-by-step procedures to process satellite imagery to map the extent of floods using as an example the recent floods in the White Volta River in the northern region of Ghana. Participants were also trained on the use of another step-by-step procedure to map the comparative impacts of droughts on vegetation in the central region of Ghana. These procedures make use of open satellite imagery and open source software and will enhance the capability of government agencies to generate maps useful to monitor floods and droughts as well as in early warning systems. UN-SPIDER took the opportunity to present to NADMO more than 40 gigabytes of optical and radar, satellite imagery and maps it generated for this mission, covering the entire Republic of Ghana in case of droughts.

 

Mission Outcome: 

  • A proposal was successfully made to the International Charter Space and Major Disasters for NADMO to become an Authorised User of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters
  • The establishment of an inter-institutional remote sensing and disaster management team called “The Ghana eaRth obsErvATion Technologies Team (GREAT Team)” which will help in designing and managing an Integrated  Decision Support System (IDeSS) for disaster risk management and emergency response
  • Participants of the four-day training were able to generate their own maps of flood extents which recently occurred on the White Volta River, using radar images from Sentinel-1
  • Participants generated more than 400 time series maps from MODIS Terra data for drought monitoring using the Standard Vegetation Index (SVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) methods

Mission Outlook

  • NADMO to carry out two additional training courses with the support of the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute and the Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of the University of Ghana to strengthen the skills of the team. These two training courses should give team members a better overview of the software tools used in the procedures (SNAP software developed by the European Space Agency and R Studio).  
  • The technical Inter-Institutional Team to start the routine generation of maps of the Vegetation Index or the Standard Vegetation Index to track areas that may be affected by drought and incorporate this procedure into the drought early warning system.
  • The Technical Inter-Institutional Team to elaborate additional maps of the floods that took place in August and September 2018 and their evolution and discuss how to use this historical information to improve disaster preparedness efforts on the basis of this and other floods.
  • NADMO to assess the feasibility of working with UN-SPIDER and Airbus in the generation of maps of areas susceptible to landslides and to tidal waves or storm surges.
  • NADMO to complete the steps regarding the incorporation of NADMO as an Authorised User of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters.

How to measure SFDRR target B5 - estimation of the number of people affected by drought in Eastern Cape, South Africa

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

This practice aims at providing an alternative way to assess indicator B5 of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) if respective loss and damage data are not available. In the context of the EvIDENz project, the Sendai indicator B-5 has been measured for the example of agricultural drought and the output is the number of agriculture-dependent-people whose livelihoods were disrupted or destroyed, attributed to agricultural drought. Thus, this practice shows how to use vegetation dynamics from MODIS satellite imagery in combination with land-use data, agricultural statistics and population census data to inform the indicator B5 for the example of the Eastern Cape province in South Africa. It consists of two parts (and two R codes): a drought hazard assessment based on the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) provided by the ZFL and the derivation of the indicator used to measure the number of people affected by agricultural drought hazard which has been provided by UNU-EHS. The procedure follows the technical guidance of UNDRR.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Logo 2: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to showcase how the combination of remote sensing and statistical data can be used to inform selected SFDRR indicators. The technical guidance by UNDRR provides support for the Member States in the operationalization of the indicators to measure progress towards the achievement of the targets of the SFDRR.

In order to calculate Sendai indicator B5 (Number of people whose livelihoods were disrupted or destroyed, attributed to disasters) the following sub-indicators and methodology are proposed for measuring the number of people whose activities required for securing a means of living or as their source of income has been affected:

  • B5a: Number of workers in agriculture with crops damaged or destroyed by disasters (estimated using sub-indicator C-2Ca, described in the Technical Guidance for Target C).
  • B5b: Number of workers responsible for, and owners of livestock lost attributed to disasters (estimated using sub-indicator C-2La).
  • B5c: Number of workers employed in productive assets facilities (such as Industrial, commercial, services, etc.) damaged or destroyed by disasters.

The technical note on data and methodology to estimate the number of affected people is adjusted to the Eastern Cape and drought context. Only indicators B5a and B5b are considered. Hence, Parts A and B focus on the drought hazard assessment whereas Parts C and D focus on the indicator measurement by combining the drought hazard with information on land-use, as well as agricultural statistics and census data to estimate the number of people affected by drought.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Recovery & Reconstruction

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought

Test Site: 

The processing chain was developed for the province of Eastern Cape in South Africa as a partner country of the EvIDENz project. Eastern Cape is located in the south east of the country with a coast on its east which lines southward.

Context: 

The Eastern Cape gets gradually wetter from west to east. The west is mostly semiarid karoo, except in the far south, which is temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma region. The east is grassland on hills, interrupted by deep gorges with intermittent forest.

The agricultural system in Eastern Cape is divided into commercial and communal farming: in contrast to the mainly small-scale communal (subsistence) farming stands the large-scale commercial farming (of mainly white farmers), which usually comprises technologically more advanced agriculture on farms larger than 1000ha. Communal farming is mainly found in the Eastern parts of the province.

Applicability: 

The processing chain was developed for the South African context which makes it most applicable for this setting. Depending on (1) the cloud cover, part A and B could also be adjusted to be used in other contexts and depending on (2) data availability, part C and B could be reproduced in another context as well.

Bibliography

Walz, Yvonne, Annika Min, Karen Dall, Moses Duguru, Juan-Carlos Villagran de Leon, Valerie Graw, Olena Dubovyk, Zita Sebesvari, Andries Jordaan, and Joachim Post. “Monitoring Progress of the Sendai Framework Using a Geospatial Model: The Example of People Affected by Agricultural Droughts in Eastern Cape, South Africa.” Progress in Disaster Science, 5 (January 1, 2020): 100062. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590061719300626?via%...

 

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