Landslide

In the early hours of August 2, 2014, nearly 2 kilometers of hillside collapsed in rugged northern Nepal. Image: NASA.

Definition

The term “landslide” refers to a variety of processes that result in the downward and outward movement of slope-forming materials, including rock, soil, artificial fill, or a combination of these. The materials may move by falling, toppling, sliding, spreading, or flowing (UNDRR).

A landslide is a downslope movement of rock or soil, or both, occurring on the surface of rupture, either curved (rotational slide) or planar (translational slide) rupture, in which much of the material often moves as a coherent or semi coherent mass with little internal deformation (USGS).

Facts and figures

According to the International Disaster Database of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, in the period from 2000 to 2014, 26,000 persons have lost their lives because of landslides and flash floods while the economic losses amounted to over US$ 40 billion (OFDA/CRED).

Landslides can be classified into different types on the basis of the type of movement and the type of material involved. In brief, material in a landslide mass is either rock or soil (or both); the latter is described as earth if mainly composed of sand-sized or finer particles and debris if composed of coarse fragments. The type of movement describes the actual internal mechanics of how the landslide mass is displaced: fall, topple, slide, spread, or flow. Thus, landslides are described using two terms that refer respectively to material and movement, that is rockfall, debris flow, and so forth. Landslides may also form a complex failure encompassing more than one type of movement that is, rock slide and debris flow (USGS).

The primary driving factor of landslides is gravity acting on a portion of a slope that is out of equilibrium. The following are some of the major landslide triggering mechanisms:

  • River erosions, glaciers, or ocean waves
  • Weakening of rock and soil slope properties through water saturation by snowmelt or heavy rains
  • Stresses, strains and excess of pore pressures induced by the inertial forces during an earthquake (earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 4.0 can trigger landslides)
  • Volcanic eruptions with the production of loose ash deposits that may become debris flows (known as lahars) during heavy rains
  • Stockpiling of rock or ore, from waste piles, or from man-made structures
  • Changes of the natural topography caused by human activity (UNDRR).

Related content on the Knowledge Portal

SAM Satellite

Landsat 5 was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on March 1, 1984, and like Landsat 4, carried the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Landsat 5 delivered Earth imaging data nearly 29 years - and set a Guinness World Record For 'Longest Operating Earth Observation Satellite', before being decommissioned on June 5, 2013.
The Landsat 5 satellite orbited the the Earth in a sun-synchronous, near-polar orbit, at an altitude of 705 km (438 mi), inclined at 98.2 degrees, and circled the Earth every 99 minutes.  The satellite had a 16-day repeat cycle with an equatorial crossing time: 9:45 a.m. +/- 15 minutes.  Landsat 5 data were acquired on the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2) path/row system, with swath overlap (or sidelap) varying from 7 percent at the Equator to a maximum of approximately 85 percent at extreme latitudes. 
Landsat 5 long outlived its original three-year design life. Developed by NASA and launched in... read more

Launch date:
01/03/1984

News

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Publishing date: 17/03/2021
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A new report outlines the impact of Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) data on various policy areas. The 2020 edition of the “Atlas of the Human Planet”, recently published and launched virtually by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission as a deliverable to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Human Planet Initiative, explores the impact of GHSL data on various policy areas, including disaster risk management.

GHSL data refers to “global spatial information, evidence-based analytics and knowledge describing the human presence on the planet”. This data relies on spatial information from Landsat 8, Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2. It is mainly cost-free and... read more

Publishing date: 18/02/2021
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A knowledge platform for adaptation action on climate change recently updated the information, layout and logo of their website. With this step, adaptationcommunity.net aims to improve the user experience of the online platform and consequently facilitate the access to a wide variety of resources on climate change adaptation action, including tools working with Earth observation data.

Adaptation action in the context of climate change refers to “adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. It refers to changes in processes, practices, and structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities... read more

Publishing date: 12/02/2021
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The Disasters programme unit at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently joined a newly launched online platform aimed at placing anticipatory action on the humanitarian agenda. NASA’s involvement in the Anticipation Hub and the subsequent incorporation of Earth observation (EO) tools, serves to improve the capabilities of anticipatory action globally and demonstrates the potential of utilizing satellite-driven data for anticipatory action in disaster management.

Anticipatory action in the humanitarian context describes disaster mitigation activities based on in-depth forecast information and risk analysis. This approach has gained traction amongst the humanitarian community in recent years as it is viewed as a more efficient and affordable alternative to... read more

Publishing date: 02/02/2021

Event

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The European Space Agency is organising the 11th International Workshop on “Advances in the Science and Applications of SAR Interferometry and Sentinel-1 InSAR”, Fringe 2021.

Format

Fringe 2021 is organised around:

  • Papers and e-posters selected by the Scientific Committee;
  • Invited papers on ESA-funded studies and Sentinel-1 and future ESA SAR mission status reports;
  • Round-table discussions with seed questions prepared by the session chairpersons and ESA.

The event will take place from 31 May - June 4 2021. No participation fees will be charged.

Objectives

  • To bring together the global InSAR research and development communities and facilitate international exchange between researchers and research groups; 
  • To present the Sentinel-1 mission status, algorithms and products;
  • To review and assess the progress according to the recommendations voiced at FRINGE... read more
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Panelists:

  • Jens Danzeglocke, Space Administration & Earth Observation, German Aerospace Center (DLR)
  • Franck Ranera, Strategic Partner Development Manager, Serco
  • Philippe Campenon, Government Sales, Planet Labs
  • Moderator: Annett Wania, Innovation Project Manager, Planet Labs

The event will take... read more

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Having reliable and timely population distribution data can make a life or death difference for individuals facing crises or living in conflict-ridden regions. These data are also essential for development decision-making and planning and for monitoring progress towards the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the international community. We need to know where people are located, what conditions they are facing, what infrastructure is available, and what basic services they can access. We also need to ensure that no one is left off the map in pursuit of meeting the SDGs. 

Gridded population data, which often use remote sensing inputs to improve the spatial allocation of population within a country, are vital for all these purposes. Together with the  growing variety of applications that require spatial population data, there is now a bewildering array of population grids, and users need to know which ones are most suitable for their applications.

... read more

Data Source

Advisory Support

Mission dates: 01/08/2020 to 30/11/2020
Regional Support Offices mentioned:

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