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monsoon

A name for seasonal winds, first applied to the winds over the Arabian Sea that blow for six months from the northeast and for six months from the southwest. The term has been extended to similar winds in other parts of the world (i.e., the prevailing west to northwest winds of summer in Europe have been called the European monsoon). The primary cause for these seasonal winds is the much greater annual variation of temperature over large land areas compared with neighboring ocean surfaces, causing an excess of pressure over the continents in winter and a deficit in summer, but other factors, such as topography of the land, also have an effect. The monsoons are strongest in the southern and eastern sides of Asia, but also occur along the coasts of tropical regions wherever the planetary circulation is not strong enough to inhibit them. The monsoon climate can be described as a long winter-spring dry season, which includes a cold season followed by a short hot season just preceding the rains; a summer and early autumn rainy season, which is generally very wet but may vary greatly from year to year; and a secondary warming immediately after the rainy season. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)