Severe Storm

Recommended Practice: Use of Digital Elevation Data for Storm Surge Coastal Flood Modelling

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Storm surges and tidal waves are global phenomena that considerably affect human populations in coastal and island regions. According to the Guide to Storm Surge Forecasting published by the World Meteorological Organization in 2011, storm surges can be defined as “oscillations of the water level in a coastal or inland body of water in the time range of a few minutes to a few days, resulting from forcing from atmospheric weather systems. According to this definition, the so-called wind waves, which have durations on the order of several seconds, are excluded”. Storm surges are a coastal phenomenon triggered by strong winds in the oceans and seas due to tropical cyclones and other similar weather systems at sea.

Tsunami modelling, sea-level rise studies and storm surge hazard mapping have been done using deterministic and probabilistic models. However, deterministic models require precise oceanographic data, as well as data on bathymetry in the coast, coastal geometry and high-resolution digital elevation models in the coastal area and ancillary data on surface roughness in coastal areas. In many developing countries these data sets are not available.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

This Recommended Practice allows users to visualize the geographical extent of coastal flooding or sea level rise on local, regional or global scale (depending on the resolution and accuracy of the incoming digital elevation model). It can be used exclusively as a first approximation to determine areas that are prone to inundation and can serve as a first assessment for further, more in-depth analysis of coastal flood and sea level rise assessment. The Recommended Practice is developed using the World Digital Elevation Model (WorldDEMTM) product of Airbus Defence and Space. For the sake of clarity - the Recommended Practice has not been developed for any other use and purpose than the above described one and is consequently not usable for and in navigation, any hazardous environment requiring error free performance.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Flood
  • Severe Storm

Test Site: 

Larger Accra region, Ghana

Context: 

The coastal region of Ghana was heavily affected by tidal waves in June 2017. Many people have been displaced and houses, infrastructure and fishing gear (boats, nets) have been destroyed. This Recommended Practice can be a first assessment to apply further analysis to identify safer ground for relocation of exposed communities. For more information please refer to following link provided by the National Disaster Management Organization of Ghana (NADMO): http://nadmo.gov.gh/index.php/archive/13-nadmo-articles/71-nadmo-tours-areas-affected-by-tidal-waves.

Airbus contact:

For any questions related to Airbus disaster management applications using Earth Observation technology or WorldDEMTM product, feel free to get in touch with the authors:

Ciro Farinelli

Future SAR Programs Manager, Airbus Defence and Space / Intelligence

ciro.farinelli (at) airbus.com

Nora Meyer Zu Erpen

Application Developer, Airbus Defence and Space / Intelligence

nora.meyer-zu-erpen (at) airbus.com

 

Applicability: 

The model can be applied to any coastal region of the world.

Peru - Technical Advisory Mission

As part of it advisory support activities, UN-SPIDER is carrying out out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Peru from 1 to 5 April to evaluate the current and potential use of space-based information in all aspects of disaster management. Based on exchanges with a wide range of stakeholders, UN-SPIDER will provide recommendations as to how to strengthen the use of space-based information in disaster risk management and emergency response in the country.

Dates: 

Mon, 01/04/2019 to Fri, 05/04/2019

Host Institution: 

National Institute of Civil Defense (INDECI) of Peru and National Commission of Aerospace Research and Development of Peru (CONIDA).

Country/Region: 

Mission Team: 

The team is comprised of eight experts from UN-SPIDER; the German Aerospace Centre (DLR); the Argentinian National Space Activities Commission (CONAE); the Mexican Space Agency (AEM); the Agustin Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia (IGAC); the Santa Ana Federal University of Brazil; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America; and the Andean Community (CAN). CONAE, AEM and IGAC are UN-SPIDER Regional Support Offices.

Mission Profile: 

The team had a series of meetings with key stakeholder organizations to take account of the availability of geospatial information, current use of space-derived information, data sharing practices, applications of geospatial information, challenges and constraints, existing capacity and needs, institutional linkages and coordination and applications to strengthen disaster risk reduction and emergency response.

 

Recommended Practice: Exposure Mapping

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Mapping the extent of a natural hazard (e.g., assessing areas with a high risk) or disaster is a first step in disaster risk management and emergency response. Subsequently, exposure mapping enables the estimation of the impact of hazards or disasters, for example, regarding the number of affected inhabitants or infrastructure. The following practice shows the use of Quantum GIS to analyze a disaster extent map in combination with auxiliary data such as population or land cover data.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to estimate the exposure of a natural hazard or disaster. As an example, the number of inhabitants affected by a flood event is estimated. The joint use of the flood mask, created by the Recommended Practice: Flood Mapping, and the WorldPop data set constitutes a viable solution to quickly estimate the impact of the flood regarding the population. The proposed methodology is a universal practice which combines a simple approach based on open-source software and free of charge data together with a beforehand created map covering the extend of a natural hazard or disaster.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness
  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought
  • Earthquake
  • Extreme Temperature
  • Forest Fire
  • Flood
  • Insect Infestation
  • Mass Movement
  • Pollution
  • Severe Storm
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanic Eruption

Test Site: 

Malawi

Context: 

The practice was applied in the context of the flood event in Malawi in January 2015. Since December 2014, heavy rains affected Malawi causing rivers to overflow. The flooded area in this analysis covered a part of the Nsanje district around Chiromo.

Applicability: 

This practice can be applied globally. Besides of the beforehand created hazard or disaster extent map, the practice does not need specific near real-time data as it is based on population, land cover, or other auxiliary geodata archives. The WorldPop data set provides population data for Africa, Asia as well as Central and South America with a spatial resolution of 100 meters. The Landcover30 data base provides global landcover data with a spatial resolution of about 30 meters.

Mongolia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Government of Mongolia, UN-SPIDER supported NEMA and stakeholders organisations in strengthening disaster risk management and emergency response by effective use of space based information including data sharing, National Spatial Data Infrastructure, policy level interventions and capacity.

Dates: 

Mon, 11/08/2014 to Fri, 15/08/2014

Host Institution: 

National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

The team of seven experts, under leadership of the UN-SPIDER, visited Mongolia from 11-15 August 2014. The mission team represented following organisations: UN-SPIDER/UNOOSA, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC), University of Georgia, Airbus Defence and Space, Asia Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO). Some of these organisations are already engaged with organisations in Mongolia in the area of disaster management and space technology.

Mission Profile: 

During this five-day mission, the mission team visited seven Ministries and Government agencies and three United Nations offices to carry out in-depth discussions. On 15 August, the Workshop “Use of Space Technology in Disaster Risk Management” was organized. About 40 officials representing various ministries/departments, institutions, and academia attended the workshop. The workshop generated awareness among a larger group of stakeholders in Mongolia, and sought their inputs on current challenges in using space-based information in disaster management.

Mission Findings: 

  • Mongolia has invested heavily in Earthquake Early Warning Systems and needs to strengthen its’ efforts towards disaster risk reduction as well as to be equipped with adequate capacity, skills and infrastructures;
  • Local government agencies are heavily involved in emergency response activities;
  • The laws, policies and plans related to disaster management are well thought out and entrusts the apex agency for emergency response and disaster risk reduction;
  • Government is focusing on disaster risk reduction to reduce losses due to disasters;
  • Many organizations are implementing several projects with national and international partners using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies;
  • There are a few good examples of agencies using RS/GIS but they are based mainly on coarse resolution satellite images.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy and Coordination

  • Geo-spatial data policy should be formulation and implementation, as well as the NSDI initiative at the provisions in existing law and policy;
  • Space-technology usage for disaster protection activities should be considered in the State Policy on Disaster Protection;
  • Geospatial agencies should focus on using spatial data and remote sensing for disaster risk reduction and response;
  • An effective data sharing policy should be formulized before the satellite launched

Data access, availability and sharing

  • Data requirements and coordination should be clearly addressed in the procedure of emergency response;
  • Promote the data sharing platform and mechanism at national level and local level;
  • Take advantage of International/regional mechanism for data access among key agencies in Mongolia

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Building capacity to use remote sensing data and data products among stakeholder organizations in Mongolia;
  • Data providing agencies may require an upgrading of their skills and staff needs additional training on server based technologies;
  • Sentinel Asia facilities needs a team of remote sensing/GIS Experts;
  • Assessing the availability and accessibility of international space-based information is recommended.

Strengthening DRR Decision making

  • DRR decision making calls for balanced effort to address issues with respect to stages of disaster management and related activities should be further linked to climate change issues involving space based information ;
  • Long term analysis should be conducted on a regular basis;
  • More detailed hazard assessments maps are needed for operational purposes;
  • Mechanisms should be established for allowing for rapid data sharing with minimal administrative action;

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • Risk prone areas should be identified for better preparedness and remote sensing should be incorporated into early warning and preparedness activities;
  • Existing ground based infrastructure for early warning should be complemented with extended remote sensing programmes;
  • GIS based information systems need to link to remote sensing data portals at provincial offices;
  • Satellite based drought early warning information should be seen as a priority.

Strengthening emergency response

  • Increased capacity is needed for managing other international mechanisms;
  • Key stakeholder agencies should discuss ways to get the right information products suitable for large scale disaster response;
  • Spatial information products should be accurately expressed that expected to receive from other institutions and enhance GIS facilities with high resolution images and large scale;
  • Technical agencies should consider seconding their staff to coordination organization during an emergency.

Multi-hazard profile of Sri Lanka (UNDRR)

Data Type: 

hazard

Costs: 

free
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Sri Lanka

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportmap
statistic

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm

Space-based Information: 

Ground-based Information

Global TerraColor Landsat Mosaic (EVG)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

nfree
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportdata

File types: 

ECW
Jpeg

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr
Screenshot of Global TerraColor Landsat Mosaic (EVG)

Spatial Resolution: 

15.00

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

Some products and formats may only be available upon request. 

Satellites and Sensors: 

Sri Lanka National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

rfree
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Sri Lanka

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportdata

File types: 

GeoTIFF
TIFF

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
Screenshot of Sri Lanka National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)

Spatial Resolution: 

2.50

Requirements: 

<p>Satellite data can be viewed by users on request with the approval of the Surveyor General at CRS Branch.</p>

TRMM (PR)

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Space Technology/Product and Application: 

  • Precipitation forecast
  • EO/RS

Field of Application: 

  • Severe Storm
  • Disaster Type

Satellite: 

Undefined

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER Data Archive)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

free
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch
fore
near

Data accessibility: 

exportdata
exportmap
statistic

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 

File types: 

GeoTIFF
HDF

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr
Screenshot of ASTER

Spatial Resolution: 

15.00

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

Satellites and Sensors: 

Earth Explorer(USGS)

Data Type: 

baseline
elevation
landuse
satdata

Costs: 

free
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch
fore
near

Data accessibility: 

exportdata
exportmap
statistic
visdata
webproc

File types: 

bmp
DBF
GeoRSS
GeoTIFF
HDF
KML
shp
TIFF
txt
webmap
WMS

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr
Screenshot of USGS

Spatial Resolution: 

30.00

Space-based Information: 

Arial Imagery,AVHRR, Digital Elevation,Declassified data, Digital Line Graphs,Digital Maps, GEOGLAM, Global Fidutials, Global Forest Observation Initiatives,Global Land Survey,JECAM Stes, HCMM, LIDAR, Land Cover,Vegetation Monitoring,NASA LPDAAC Collection

Requirements: 

<p>Operating System: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, MAC, UNIX, LINUX</p>

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

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