Severe Storm

Recommended Practice: Exposure Mapping

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Mapping the extent of a natural hazard (e.g., assessing areas with a high risk) or disaster is a first step in disaster risk management and emergency response. Subsequently, exposure mapping enables the estimation of the impact of hazards or disasters, for example, regarding the number of affected inhabitants or infrastructure. The following practice shows the use of Quantum GIS to analyze a disaster extent map in combination with auxiliary data such as population or land cover data.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to estimate the exposure of a natural hazard or disaster. As an example, the number of inhabitants affected by a flood event is estimated. The joint use of the flood mask, created by the Recommended Practice: Flood Mapping, and the WorldPop data set constitutes a viable solution to quickly estimate the impact of the flood regarding the population. The proposed methodology is a universal practice which combines a simple approach based on open-source software and free of charge data together with a beforehand created map covering the extend of a natural hazard or disaster.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness
  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought
  • Earthquake
  • Extreme Temperature
  • Forest Fire
  • Flood
  • Insect Infestation
  • Mass Movement
  • Pollution
  • Severe Storm
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanic Eruption

Test Site: 

Malawi

Context: 

The practice was applied in the context of the flood event in Malawi in January 2015. Since December 2014, heavy rains affected Malawi causing rivers to overflow. The flooded area in this analysis covered a part of the Nsanje district around Chiromo.

Applicability: 

This practice can be applied globally. Besides of the beforehand created hazard or disaster extent map, the practice does not need specific near real-time data as it is based on population, land cover, or other auxiliary geodata archives. The WorldPop data set provides population data for Africa, Asia as well as Central and South America with a spatial resolution of 100 meters. The Landcover30 data base provides global landcover data with a spatial resolution of about 30 meters.

Mongolia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Government of Mongolia, UN-SPIDER supported NEMA and stakeholders organisations in strengthening disaster risk management and emergency response by effective use of space based information including data sharing, National Spatial Data Infrastructure, policy level interventions and capacity.

Main Hazards: 

Dates: 

Mon, 11/08/2014 to Fri, 15/08/2014

Host Institution: 

National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)

Mission Team: 

The team of seven experts, under leadership of the UN-SPIDER, visited Mongolia from 11-15 August 2014. The mission team represented following organisations: UN-SPIDER/UNOOSA, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC), University of Georgia, Airbus Defence and Space, Asia Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO). Some of these organisations are already engaged with organisations in Mongolia in the area of disaster management and space technology.

Mission Profile: 

During this five-day mission, the mission team visited seven Ministries and Government agencies and three United Nations offices to carry out in-depth discussions. On 15 August, the Workshop “Use of Space Technology in Disaster Risk Management” was organized. About 40 officials representing various ministries/departments, institutions, and academia attended the workshop. The workshop generated awareness among a larger group of stakeholders in Mongolia, and sought their inputs on current challenges in using space-based information in disaster management.

Mission Findings: 

  • Mongolia has invested heavily in Earthquake Early Warning Systems and needs to strengthen its’ efforts towards disaster risk reduction as well as to be equipped with adequate capacity, skills and infrastructures;
  • Local government agencies are heavily involved in emergency response activities;
  • The laws, policies and plans related to disaster management are well thought out and entrusts the apex agency for emergency response and disaster risk reduction;
  • Government is focusing on disaster risk reduction to reduce losses due to disasters;
  • Many organizations are implementing several projects with national and international partners using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies;
  • There are a few good examples of agencies using RS/GIS but they are based mainly on coarse resolution satellite images.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy and Coordination

  • Geo-spatial data policy should be formulation and implementation, as well as the NSDI initiative at the provisions in existing law and policy;
  • Space-technology usage for disaster protection activities should be considered in the State Policy on Disaster Protection;
  • Geospatial agencies should focus on using spatial data and remote sensing for disaster risk reduction and response;
  • An effective data sharing policy should be formulized before the satellite launched

Data access, availability and sharing

  • Data requirements and coordination should be clearly addressed in the procedure of emergency response;
  • Promote the data sharing platform and mechanism at national level and local level;
  • Take advantage of International/regional mechanism for data access among key agencies in Mongolia

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Building capacity to use remote sensing data and data products among stakeholder organizations in Mongolia;
  • Data providing agencies may require an upgrading of their skills and staff needs additional training on server based technologies;
  • Sentinel Asia facilities needs a team of remote sensing/GIS Experts;
  • Assessing the availability and accessibility of international space-based information is recommended.

Strengthening DRR Decision making

  • DRR decision making calls for balanced effort to address issues with respect to stages of disaster management and related activities should be further linked to climate change issues involving space based information ;
  • Long term analysis should be conducted on a regular basis;
  • More detailed hazard assessments maps are needed for operational purposes;
  • Mechanisms should be established for allowing for rapid data sharing with minimal administrative action;

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • Risk prone areas should be identified for better preparedness and remote sensing should be incorporated into early warning and preparedness activities;
  • Existing ground based infrastructure for early warning should be complemented with extended remote sensing programmes;
  • GIS based information systems need to link to remote sensing data portals at provincial offices;
  • Satellite based drought early warning information should be seen as a priority.

Strengthening emergency response

  • Increased capacity is needed for managing other international mechanisms;
  • Key stakeholder agencies should discuss ways to get the right information products suitable for large scale disaster response;
  • Spatial information products should be accurately expressed that expected to receive from other institutions and enhance GIS facilities with high resolution images and large scale;
  • Technical agencies should consider seconding their staff to coordination organization during an emergency.

Sri Lanka National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

rfree
Undefined

Spatial Coverage: 

Sri Lanka

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportdata

File types: 

GeoTIFF
TIFF

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm

Spatial Resolution: 

2.50

Requirements: 

<p>Satellite data can be viewed by users on request with the approval of the Surveyor General at CRS Branch.</p>

TRMM (PR)

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Space Technology/Product and Application: 

  • Precipitation forecast
  • EO/RS

Field of Application: 

  • Severe Storm
  • Disaster Type

Satellite: 

Undefined

COSMO-SkyMed/SAR imagery (ESA)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

rfree
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportdata

File types: 

GeoTIFF
HDF5
JPEGJPG
TIFF

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr

Spatial Resolution: 

1.00

Requirements: 

<p>Submission of Project Proposal is required for Restrained Datasets</p>

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

Satellites and Sensors: 

RADARSAT- 1&2/SAR imagery (CSA and MDA)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

rfree
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportdata

File types: 

TIFF
XML

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr

Spatial Resolution: 

1.60

Space-based Information: 

RADARSAT-1&2/SAR

Requirements: 

<p>ESA gives only to European Principal Investigators (Europe28+Switzerland+Norway) the opportunity to get a limited amount of free products upon the submission of a project proposal.</p>

Satellites and Sensors: 

Storm Detection and Forecast Map (Tropical Cyclones - CIMMS)

Costs: 

free
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global
Northern America
Asia

Temporal Coverage: 

arch
near

Data accessibility: 

exportdata
statistic
visdata

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 

File types: 

KML
txt

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm

Spatial Resolution: 

50000.00

Space-based Information: 

Spaced based infra red sensors

Requirements: 

<p>Man computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS)</p>

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

Storm Coverage - archived data (CIMMS)

Data Type: 

hazard

Costs: 

free
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

statistic
visdata

Taxonomy upgrade extras: 

File types: 

KML
PNG
txt

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr

Spatial Resolution: 

1000.00

Space-based Information: 

Weather Satellites

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

If any of the images provided are to be displayed elsewhere (internet, publications, etc.), please reference CIMSS.

TRMM (TMI)

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness
  • Preparedness

Space Technology/Product and Application: 

  • Precipitation forecast
  • Precipitation forecast
  • EO/RS
  • EO/RS

Field of Application: 

  • Severe Storm
  • Severe Storm
  • Disaster Type
  • Disaster Type

Satellite: 

English

Advancing Extreme Weather Monitoring from Space: From TRMM to GPM

 

English

Bibliographic reference: 

D. Kirschbaum, A. Hou (2011). Advancing Extreme Weather Monitoring from Space: From TRMM to GPM. Earthzine, posted on April 18th, 2011 in Articles, Earth Observation, Extreme Weather

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