Drought

Ecuador - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As part of the technical advisory support it provides to countries worldwide, UN-SPIDER carried out an Institutional Strengthening Mission to Republic of Ecuador from 8-12 April 2019 upon the request of the government. This activity was jointly organized by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), through its United Nations Platform for space-based information for disaster management and emergency response (UN-SPIDER) and the National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador. The Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia (IGAC) and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil supported the mission.

Dates: 

Mon, 08/04/2019 to Fri, 12/04/2019

Host Institution: 

National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Representatives from UN-SPIDER, The Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

Mission Profile: 

The mission was a follow-up activity to the UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) conducted in October 2009 at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Commerce and Integration (MRECI), as Ecuador is exposed to a variety of geologic and hydro-meteorological hazards, including many active volcanoes. In addition, it is exposed to climatic events such as El Niño and La Niña.

During the five-day mission, UN-SPIDER carried out a training programme on "Analysis of satellite images to monitor floods, droughts and forest fires". The programme brought together various institutions that were convened by the National Risk and Emergency Management Service. The objective was to train participants in the fundamentals, methods of remote sensing and digital processing of satellite images to obtain useful information for monitoring floods, droughts and forest fires.

Disaster type: 

Ghana - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As a follow-up activitity to its 2013 Technical Advisory Mission to the Western African country, UN-SPIDER conducted a week-long Institutional Strengthening Mission (ISM) to Ghana. The mission followed an invitation of the Government of Ghana and was hosted by the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO).

Dates: 

Mon, 15/10/2018 to Fri, 19/10/2018

Host Institution: 

National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Organizers UN-SPIDER and National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)
   
Participants Ghana National Fire Service (GNFS)
  Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (CERSGIS)
  Ghana Meteorological Department (G-MET)
  Ghana Survey Department (GSD) 
  Ghana Armed Forces (GAF)
  Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA)
  Hydrological Services Department (HSD)
  Ghana Police Service (GPS)
  Water Resources Commission (WRC)
  Ghana Geological Survey Authority
  Health Services Department Ghana 

 

Mission Profile: 

The aims of the UN-SPIDER Institutional Strengthening Mission (ISM) to Ghana were

The mission consisted of two parts:

Inter-institutional Seminar

The seminar brought together nearly 50  participants from several government agencies in including NADMO, the Ghana Geological Survey Authority, the Survey Mapping Division, the Police Department, the Land Use Spatial Planning Authority, the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, the Ghana Irrigation Authority, the Water Resources Commission, the Ghana Armed Forces and the National Fire Service as well as the Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of the University of Ghana.

The seminar allowed participants to exchange information on their activities, on joint efforts with NADMO and on the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems in their routine tasks.

Training course

The training course was organized and attended by 25 participants from several government agencies and the University of Ghana. Participants were trained in the use of specific step-by-step procedures to process satellite imagery to map the extent of floods using as an example the recent floods in the White Volta River in the northern region of Ghana. Participants were also trained on the use of another step-by-step procedure to map the comparative impacts of droughts on vegetation in the central region of Ghana. These procedures make use of open satellite imagery and open source software and will enhance the capability of government agencies to generate maps useful to monitor floods and droughts as well as in early warning systems. UN-SPIDER took the opportunity to present to NADMO more than 40 gigabytes of optical and radar, satellite imagery and maps it generated for this mission, covering the entire Republic of Ghana in case of droughts.

 

Mission Outcome: 

  • A proposal was successfully made to the International Charter Space and Major Disasters for NADMO to become an Authorised User of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters
  • The establishment of an inter-institutional remote sensing and disaster management team called “The Ghana eaRth obsErvATion Technologies Team (GREAT Team)” which will help in designing and managing an Integrated  Decision Support System (IDeSS) for disaster risk management and emergency response
  • Participants of the four-day training were able to generate their own maps of flood extents which recently occurred on the White Volta River, using radar images from Sentinel-1
  • Participants generated more than 400 time series maps from MODIS Terra data for drought monitoring using the Standard Vegetation Index (SVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) methods

Mission Outlook

  • NADMO to carry out two additional training courses with the support of the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute and the Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of the University of Ghana to strengthen the skills of the team. These two training courses should give team members a better overview of the software tools used in the procedures (SNAP software developed by the European Space Agency and R Studio).  
  • The technical Inter-Institutional Team to start the routine generation of maps of the Vegetation Index or the Standard Vegetation Index to track areas that may be affected by drought and incorporate this procedure into the drought early warning system.
  • The Technical Inter-Institutional Team to elaborate additional maps of the floods that took place in August and September 2018 and their evolution and discuss how to use this historical information to improve disaster preparedness efforts on the basis of this and other floods.
  • NADMO to assess the feasibility of working with UN-SPIDER and Airbus in the generation of maps of areas susceptible to landslides and to tidal waves or storm surges.
  • NADMO to complete the steps regarding the incorporation of NADMO as an Authorised User of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters.

Nepal - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) and with the technical support of the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), UN-SPIDER carried out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Nepal to evaluate the current and potential use of space based information in all aspects of disaster management and offering recommendations to strengthen disaster risk management and emergency response in the country.

Dates: 

Mon, 31/07/2017 to Fri, 04/08/2017

Host Institution: 

Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

The team of 11 experts, under the leadership of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)/UN-SPIDER), visited NEPAL from 31 July to 4 August 2017. The mission team represented the following organizations: UNOOSA/UN-SPIDER, ICIMOD, Chinese Academy of Sciences, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Technology of Delta State University, United Nations Affiliated Centre for Space Science and Technology Education for Asia and the Pacific hosted by Indian Space Research Organisation and DigitalGlobe, Singapore.

Mission Profile: 

During the five-day mission, the mission team visited key stakeholder agencies to carry out in-depth discussions on the current and potential use of space based information in all aspects of disaster management and offering recommendations to strengthen the disaster risk management and emergency response in the country. A one-day workshop was conducted as a part of this mission, which was attended by more than 65 participants. On the fifth day, the mission team compiled and presented their observations and recommendations to high-level officials of the MoHA, United Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office (UN-RCO) and other key stakeholders.

Mission Findings: 

Policy

  • Many agencies visited have incorporated GIS and remote sensing in their activities. However it seems rather ad hoc and not guided by an overall policy for using space based technology for DRR and DM.
  • Data provision from different agencies is fragmented and lacks clear policy and responsibilities for data generation, maintenance and update.
  • Critical is the missing NSDI and related activities. Access to data due to inadequate policy framing has been highlighted several times as a crucial issue to advance DRR related activities.
  • National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management NSDRM 2009 Priority Action 2 (Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and strengthen early warning System) relates to “Establish and institutionalize authentic, and open GIS-based Disaster Information Management System (DIMS) at all levels).
  • Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982 is under revision which provides opportunities to integrate the use of space based information in line with the Sendai Framework.

Data availability and sharing

  • ICIMOD is well placed to access earth observation data through SERVIR, Sentinel Asia and other programmes. Some agencies have UAVs.
  • There is no national agency responsible for driving remote sensing based progammes.
  • Baseline GIS data is available, although it is not clear how data is shared, used and its quality. This restricts interoperability among the GIS layers developed by various organizations.
  • This data gap is filled with open street map data and other separate initiatives.
  • A lot of valuable geospatial data is available and more are being collected, however, there is a lack of data standards, metadata and data accessibility mainly due to lack of policy guidelines, appropriate software and hardware issues.
  • Departments are unable or not forthcoming to share data. Data is not posted publicly and is usually shared on an ad-hoc and informal basis due to lack of policy guidelines.
  • There are no targeted missions to generate hazard, and risk maps. Such gap is filled by many non government actors. Use of EO based input is minimal.

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • CSSTEAP has over 100 alumni in Nepal trained in RS/GIS, SatCom, SatMetetc. Several others are trained in the other institutions.
  • Trained staff cannot make use of their capacities due to limitations in policy framing (except Nepalese Army and APF).
  • Capacity building should be guided by a strategy that addresses long-term capacity building needs;
  • Additionally danger exists that staff cannot upgrade and refresh their capacities as they are losing the connection to state-of-the-art knowledge.
  • Government institutions involved in geospatial technologies have not adequately planned for the required software, hardware, and skills maintenance needed to keep systems running.
  • Again the situation is better outside the governmental intuitions -especially with very high level capacities at ICIMOD, as well as different NGOs.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy

  • Integrate space based and geospatial information while the following policy documents are revised: DM Act, National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM), 2009 and National Disaster Response Framework (NDRF), 2013
  • Create a national data policy that includes data standards (including geospatial data), which points to a clear need for National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI);
  • Develop guidelines for a disaster inventory database and clearly spell out, who will provide services, who will use them, and for what purpose.
  • To ensure the efficient use of resources in support of DRR, there should be a department or entity that is entirely dedicated to coordination. ;
  • In the meantime, there can still be coordination between agencies producing and using data for disaster management and emergency response. MoHA can convene an information management or GIS working group. This group will coordinate data management activities, share data, develop standards, and work toward there being no duplication of efforts.
  • Army, APF, NGOs (KLL, Nepal GIS Society), Survey Department and ICIMOD are important players.

Data availability and sharing

  • “One Nation-One Map” policy to promote the preparation of base line thematic layers including hazard and risk maps at highest possible resolution and scale by respective agencies in a time bound manner.
  • Policy document and related actions to convince key ministries to invest in earth observation and geospatial information, which leads to faster economic growth.
  • Data access should be explicitly addressed in high level policy or strategy. Then technology can easily be put in place to facilitate data access.
  • Organisations like DWIDM, DHM, DMG needs clear mandate and strategic guidance from MoHA to undertake hazard/risk mapping.
  • A portal for discovering national data assets is needed, regardless of whether or not data may be shared freely, for cost, or not at all. This will reduce duplication of effort.
  • Overarching plan to generate spatial data is needed (land use, soil, hydro-geomorphology, water resources, socio-economic etc.)

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Capacity building should be guided by a strategy that addresses long-term capacity building needs;
  • Use of in-house institutions to offer regular capacity building programmes focused on space technology applications in specific themes and upcoming innovations;
  • Develop technological capacity or set up a dedicated centre that would provide technical support to NEOC; and
  • Ensure trained staffs remain in their positions within the government department allowing them to focus on specific technical skills to leverage remote sensing and GIS in support of DRR and DM.
  • Capacity existing in other institutions such as ICIMOD can be used as a valuable resource to maintain capacity within the government.
  • Explore opportunities for Public-Private Partnership

Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction

  • Critical role by NEOC in facilitating hazard, and risk maps using Earth observation;
  • National mission guiding the use of geospatial technology in disaster management include inventory, monitoring, spatial analysis and modeling and developing GIS-based tools for hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis.
  • Establishment of a technical centre within NEOC which can be partly manned by staff from stakeholder ministries. This centre should be able to coordinate and use information generated by all stakeholder agencies during all stages of disaster management; and
  • For disaster risk reduction, preparation of hazard zonation maps, early warning and mainstreaming guide lines are considered as key areas to focus.
  • DRR should be a key component of sustainable development (SDG) and integrate climate change adaptation.

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • The existing early warning system (EWS) should be strengthened by building expertise on advanced applications of Earth observation (reference ICIMOD efforts);
  • There is an urgent need to build capacities for multi-hazard use of EWS, where information (thematic maps, risk maps etc.) generated from satellite images can be integrated with early warning information; and
  • Strengthen capacities in providing more accurate and localized early warning information that can be used for local disaster preparedness and response at the community level.

Strengthening emergency response

  • Develop routine mechanism to use Earth observation to provide situational awareness to support NEOC and ensure coordinated and effective response during emergencies;
  • NEOC should become an Authorised User of the International Charter for Space and utilized Sentinel Asia facility at ICIMOD;
  • Prepare SOPs for acquisition and utilisation of space based information during emergency response (Reference: WG in UN-SPIDER Conference 2015)
  • The training and mock drills on routine basis to enable stakeholders to make good use of international support
  • Information sharing channels during emergencies should be clarified in the legal and strategic documents developed by MoHA
  • Cross train geospatial professionals with DM –the two are largely treated as independent functions.
  • Basic map reading and land navigation skills must be taught across all entities involved with DM, particular within the response community
  • Prepare and implement a geospatial strategy and NSDI under leadership of MoHA, in close collaboration with main players;
  • Develop an institutional capacity development strategy;
  • Prepare and implement a plan to address Priority 1 of Sendai framework by developing methods identify risks, hazards and vulnerabilities using geoinformation; and
  • Prepare and implement a plan to address Priority 4 of Sendai framework for Disaster Reduction: 2015-2030 by developing SOP to use earth observation for enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response.

Actions identified during debriefing at Ministry of Home Affairs on the 5th day of the TAM

  1. Re-start planning to develop an NSDI. Under the leadership of the Survey Dept, but with the active participation of all concerned agencies and partners. (governmental and Non-governmental agencies)
    1. Strengthen DRR portal to host relevant data related to DRR
  2. TAM to suggest innovative approaches in capacity building for mainstreaming Space tech in DRR and DR
  3. Enhance existing partnerships to maximize the use of space tech at EOC.
  4. Suggest mechanisms for using space technology to identify and address vulnerability. (focus on more accessible technology –not high-tech)
  5. TAM to recommend ways to strengthen DRR, perhaps through strengthened partnership with academic partnerships.
  6. TAM to share our observations on capacity of the different agencies of the GoN.
  7. UN to explore ways to support the GoNin efforts to improve the use of space technology for DRR.
  8. Support awareness raising activities at the very senior government level on the benefits of GIS and remote sensing in DRR (and beyond). TAM can share lessons learned
  9. TAM to suggest ways to better manage and use information in support of emergency response operations. (i.e review DRR Portal)
  10. Establish an executive and technical committee under the leadership of NEOC. (or the to-be-established NDMC)
    1. Executive committee to look at policy and mandate issues
    2. Technical committee to coordinate data collection activities, identify data sources, and establish data standards and guidance.

Expert Mission to El Salvador in July 2016

Dates: 

Mon, 11/07/2016 to Wed, 13/07/2016

Host Institution: 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of El Salvador

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Expert: 

Juan Carlos Villagran de Leon, UN-SPIDER

Mission Profile: 

The mission was conducted as part of the activities of the project entitled "Strengthening Early Warning Systems for Drought" (SEWS-D).   The mission was used to discuss advances regarding the project, and to conduct the first meeting of the technical, inter-institutional team that UN-SPIDER suggested during its Technical Advisory Mission that was conducted in April 2014.   The proposed team is being established by the General Directorate of Civil Protection of El Salvador.

The opprtunity was used to update members of the Civil Protection Directorate and of the Environmental Observatory of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources regarding updates in the Recommended Practices on the drought indices that have been developed by UN-SPIDER and to provide the updated maps of the SVi and the VCI.

Mission Outcome: 

The mission facilitated:

- The establishment of the technical, interinstitutional team to contribute to disaster risk reduction, preparedness and emergency response efforts through the generation of space-based information;

- The delivery of updated maps of the VCI and the SVI, which now include the procedure to mask out those pixels which are covered by clouds;

- Follow-up efforts in El Salvador regarding the SEWS-D project.

Recommended Practice: Drought monitoring using the Standard Vegetation Index (SVI)

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Drought monitoring is an important component in drought early warning systems. This practice shows how to monitor the impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation using MODIS optical satellite imagery. The practice has been developed in the context of the SEWS-D project. It is similar to the practice developed by the Iranian Space Agency but it proposes the use of a different index (SVI instead of VCI). The practice was developed by the Universidad Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) in Brasil. (The above image shows the standard vegetation index based on EVI for El Salvador on 28 July 2014.)

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Objective: 

The purpose of this recommended practice is to monitor impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation (rain fed, range land & forest).

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought

Test Site: 

The test site includes several countries in the dry corridor of Central America. The practice has also been tested in Dominican Republic and Brazil.

Context: 

In the last two decades, Central American countries have experienced more frequent and intense droughts. These droughts have manifested themselves in arid areas of this region, and have a greater impact on subsistence farmers. The worse effects and impacts have taken place when an international stressor (extreme reduction in the price of an agricultural export crop such as coffee in the world markets; or the substantial increase in the price of oil in the international markets) coincides with a severe drought. Governments have identified a certain geographic area in this region as the one most prone to the effects of droughts, which now spans selected areas in six Central American countries as indicated in the map below. This is called the “Dry Corridor” of Central America.

Applicability: 

Figure: Dry corridor of Central America

The methodology as such can be applied globally. However, the choice of the months of the MODIS data will vary depending on the timing of the vegetation period.

Recommended Practice: Exposure Mapping

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Mapping the extent of a natural hazard (e.g., assessing areas with a high risk) or disaster is a first step in disaster risk management and emergency response. Subsequently, exposure mapping enables the estimation of the impact of hazards or disasters, for example, regarding the number of affected inhabitants or infrastructure. The following practice shows the use of Quantum GIS to analyze a disaster extent map in combination with auxiliary data such as population or land cover data.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to estimate the exposure of a natural hazard or disaster. As an example, the number of inhabitants affected by a flood event is estimated. The joint use of the flood mask, created by the Recommended Practice: Flood Mapping, and the WorldPop data set constitutes a viable solution to quickly estimate the impact of the flood regarding the population. The proposed methodology is a universal practice which combines a simple approach based on open-source software and free of charge data together with a beforehand created map covering the extend of a natural hazard or disaster.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness
  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought
  • Earthquake
  • Extreme Temperature
  • Forest Fire
  • Flood
  • Insect Infestation
  • Mass Movement
  • Pollution
  • Severe Storm
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanic Eruption

Test Site: 

Malawi

Context: 

The practice was applied in the context of the flood event in Malawi in January 2015. Since December 2014, heavy rains affected Malawi causing rivers to overflow. The flooded area in this analysis covered a part of the Nsanje district around Chiromo.

Applicability: 

This practice can be applied globally. Besides of the beforehand created hazard or disaster extent map, the practice does not need specific near real-time data as it is based on population, land cover, or other auxiliary geodata archives. The WorldPop data set provides population data for Africa, Asia as well as Central and South America with a spatial resolution of 100 meters. The Landcover30 data base provides global landcover data with a spatial resolution of about 30 meters.

Zambia - Technical Advisory Mission

UN-SPIDER and its team of experts carried out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Zambia from 26 to 30 May 2014. The TAM was conducted upon invitation of the Office of the Vice-President, Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit (DMMU).

Dates: 

Mon, 26/05/2014 to Fri, 30/05/2014

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

The team met with about 15 key stakeholder agencies in the country including the Survey Department, the Meteorological Service or the National Remote Sensing Centre. The experts took stock of issues such as policy gaps, availability of satellite data and geospatial information for all relevant institutions, the current use of space-based information in the country, and data sharing practice. The team also looked at challenges and constraints, existing capacity and further training needs, established institutional linkages and ways to strengthen disaster risk reduction and emergency response at the country level.

As a first follow up of the TAM, information was shared on data collection and very high resolution data acquisition options, seeing the high interest of the host institutions to work immediately on the implementation of the agreed recommendations. Meetings were also extended to various UN agencies with disaster-management responsibilities locally, and presentations on best practices were made at a workshop at the end of the mission.

A one-day workshop introduced participants to the potential of space-based technologies for disaster management and to best practices, and looked at options to improve their usage in Zambia.

Mission Findings: 

Zambia is in many ways advanced in its use of technology and its ability to use geospatial data. Its main needs are to set up a national spatial data infrastructure, to expand data-sharing, and to obtain access to regular Earth observations and high-resolution data from public and commercial sources.

Mission Recommendations: 

  • To collect additional remote sensing data and analysis for early warning;
  • To collect weather information in real time and to set up a denser network of weather stations to provide more accurate and timely information about the local situation;
  • To compile climate change resiliency information and related plans;  
  • To set up flood plain and risk mapping and an early warning system for floods; (e) To develop flash flood modelling and prediction capabilities;
  • To build capacity for remote sensing and the geographic information system and raise awareness, making optimal use of low-cost approaches and free data sources, applications, technologies and services;
  • To set up a fire warning system, recruit more fire watch staff and acquire more fire watch facilities and modelling tools;
  • To collect specific upper atmospheric data and models;
  • To develop a national high resolution digital elevation model;
  • To promote access to radar imagery and develop related processing capability.

 

Recommended Practice: Drought monitoring using the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI)

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Drought monitoring is an important component in drought early warning systems. This practice shows how to monitor the impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation using MODIS optical satellite imagery. The practice has been developed by the Iranian Space Agency, a Regional Support Office of UN-SPIDER. It can be followed using ENVI, RStudio or Python. It is similar to the practice developed by the Universidad Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) in Brazil, however it uses the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) instead of the Standard Vegetation Index (SVI).

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Objective: 

The purpose of this recommended practice is to monitor the impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation (rainfed, rangeland & forest). Availability, simplicity, free of charge data, good research literature and citation, minimum requirements of inputs are the main criterion, which has been considered to define the methodology.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought

Test Site: 

The practice as been applied to various regions as the method developed by the Iranian Space Agency has gradually been implemented in different programs. The test site used for the step-by-step instructions for ENVI includes the following five provinces in Iran: Alborz, Tehran, Semnan, Qom, Isfahan (See "In Detail for maps of the test site.). The original R script as well as the R script including a cloud mask have focused on Guatemala, while the R script for large areas has calculated the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) for Peru. The Python code has been tested for Ghana.

Context: 

The total area of the test site in Iran amounts around 250,000 km2. The elevation within the test site ranges from 270m to 4,390m. The vegetation growth period is from May to June. The average annual rainfall amounts to 240mm. The predominant land cover is bare land and rangeland with mainly low vegetation density. Land cover of the test site also includes irrigated agriculture, rainfed agriculture, saline land, and seasonal lakes. Land cover classes with smaller occurrence include forest, orchard, and wetlands (see "In Detail" for maps of the test site).

Central American countries have experienced more frequent and intense droughts in the last two decades. These droughts have manifested themselves in arid areas of this regions, and have a greater impact on subsistence farmers. The worse effects and impacts have taken place when an international stressor (extreme reduction in the price of an agricultural export crop such as coffee in the world markets; or the substantial increase in the price of oil in the international markets) coincides with a severe drought. Governments have identified a certain geographic area in this region as the one most prone to the effects of droughts which is called the "Dry Corridor" of Central America.

Applicability: 

The methodology as such can be applied globally. However, the choice of the months of the MODIS data will vary depending on the timing of the vegetation period.

NOAA 15-17 (AVHRR 3)

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Relief & Response
  • Relief & Response
  • Relief & Response

Space Technology/Product and Application: 

  • DIM for Vegetation Monitoring
  • DIM for Vegetation Monitoring
  • DIM for Vegetation Monitoring
  • EO/RS
  • EO/RS
  • EO/RS

Field of Application: 

  • Drought
  • Drought
  • Drought
  • Disaster Type
  • Disaster Type
  • Disaster Type

Satellite: 

English

Aqua (MODIS)

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Relief & Response
  • Relief & Response

Space Technology/Product and Application: 

  • DIM for Vegetation Monitoring
  • DIM for Vegetation Monitoring
  • EO/RS
  • EO/RS

Field of Application: 

  • Drought
  • Drought
  • Disaster Type
  • Disaster Type

Satellite: 

English

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