Glossary: E

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  1. Bodies in space orbit in elliptical rather than circular orbits because of factors such as gravity and drag. The point where the orbiting satellite is closest to Earth is the perigee, sometimes called peri-apsis or perifocus. The point where the...
  2. A disruption of the functioning of society, causing human, material or environmental damages and losses which do not exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using only its own resources.
  3. The set of agencies, organizations and institutions at local, national, regional and international levels that focus their activities on response, rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery. The term “humanitarian response community” is mentioned...
  4. The ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to that emitted by a black body at the same temperature. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  5. The natural greenhouse effect has been enhanced by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, CFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3, and other photochemically important gases caused by...
  6. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) is a German hyperspectral satellite mission that aims at monitoring and characterizing the Earth’s environment on a global scale. EnMAP serves to measure and model key dynamic processes of the...
  7. Interacting parts of a single global system of climate fluctuations. ENSO is the most prominent known source of interannual variability in weather and climate around the world, though not all areas are affected. The Southern Oscillation (SO) is a...
  8. The complex of physical, chemical, and biological factors in which a living organism or community exists. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  9. ESA
    European Space Agency
  10. A bay that formed when a broad river valley was submerged by rising sea level or a sinking coast. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  11. European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
  12. The process whereby a body of water becomes rich in dissolved nutrients through natural or man-made processes. This often results in a deficiency of dissolved oxygen, producing an environment that favors plant over animal life. Source: NASA (http://...
  13. Change from a liquid (more dense) to a vapor or gas (less dense) from. When water is heated it becomes a vapor that increases humidity. Evaporation is the opposite of condensation. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  14. The sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. Potential evapotranspiration is the amount of water that could be evaporated or transpired at a given temperature and humidity, if there was plenty of water available. Actual evapotranspiration can not...

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