TAM

Nepal - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) and with the technical support of the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), UN-SPIDER carried out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Nepal to evaluate the current and potential use of space based information in all aspects of disaster management and offering recommendations to strengthen disaster risk management and emergency response in the country.

Main Hazards: 

Dates: 

Mon, 31/07/2017 to Fri, 04/08/2017

Host Institution: 

Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA)

Mission Team: 

The team of 11 experts, under the leadership of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)/UN-SPIDER), visited NEPAL from 31 July to 4 August 2017. The mission team represented the following organizations: UNOOSA/UN-SPIDER, ICIMOD, Chinese Academy of Sciences, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Technology of Delta State University, United Nations Affiliated Centre for Space Science and Technology Education for Asia and the Pacific hosted by Indian Space Research Organisation and DigitalGlobe, Singapore.

Mission Profile: 

During the five-day mission, the mission team visited key stakeholder agencies to carry out in-depth discussions on the current and potential use of space based information in all aspects of disaster management and offering recommendations to strengthen the disaster risk management and emergency response in the country. A one-day workshop was conducted as a part of this mission, which was attended by more than 65 participants. On the fifth day, the mission team compiled and presented their observations and recommendations to high-level officials of the MoHA, United Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office (UN-RCO) and other key stakeholders.

Mission Findings: 

Policy

  • Many agencies visited have incorporated GIS and remote sensing in their activities. However it seems rather ad hoc and not guided by an overall policy for using space based technology for DRR and DM.
  • Data provision from different agencies is fragmented and lacks clear policy and responsibilities for data generation, maintenance and update.
  • Critical is the missing NSDI and related activities. Access to data due to inadequate policy framing has been highlighted several times as a crucial issue to advance DRR related activities.
  • National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management NSDRM 2009 Priority Action 2 (Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and strengthen early warning System) relates to “Establish and institutionalize authentic, and open GIS-based Disaster Information Management System (DIMS) at all levels).
  • Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982 is under revision which provides opportunities to integrate the use of space based information in line with the Sendai Framework.

Data availability and sharing

  • ICIMOD is well placed to access earth observation data through SERVIR, Sentinel Asia and other programmes. Some agencies have UAVs.
  • There is no national agency responsible for driving remote sensing based progammes.
  • Baseline GIS data is available, although it is not clear how data is shared, used and its quality. This restricts interoperability among the GIS layers developed by various organizations.
  • This data gap is filled with open street map data and other separate initiatives.
  • A lot of valuable geospatial data is available and more are being collected, however, there is a lack of data standards, metadata and data accessibility mainly due to lack of policy guidelines, appropriate software and hardware issues.
  • Departments are unable or not forthcoming to share data. Data is not posted publicly and is usually shared on an ad-hoc and informal basis due to lack of policy guidelines.
  • There are no targeted missions to generate hazard, and risk maps. Such gap is filled by many non government actors. Use of EO based input is minimal.

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • CSSTEAP has over 100 alumni in Nepal trained in RS/GIS, SatCom, SatMetetc. Several others are trained in the other institutions.
  • Trained staff cannot make use of their capacities due to limitations in policy framing (except Nepalese Army and APF).
  • Capacity building should be guided by a strategy that addresses long-term capacity building needs;
  • Additionally danger exists that staff cannot upgrade and refresh their capacities as they are losing the connection to state-of-the-art knowledge.
  • Government institutions involved in geospatial technologies have not adequately planned for the required software, hardware, and skills maintenance needed to keep systems running.
  • Again the situation is better outside the governmental intuitions -especially with very high level capacities at ICIMOD, as well as different NGOs.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy

  • Integrate space based and geospatial information while the following policy documents are revised: DM Act, National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM), 2009 and National Disaster Response Framework (NDRF), 2013
  • Create a national data policy that includes data standards (including geospatial data), which points to a clear need for National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI);
  • Develop guidelines for a disaster inventory database and clearly spell out, who will provide services, who will use them, and for what purpose.
  • To ensure the efficient use of resources in support of DRR, there should be a department or entity that is entirely dedicated to coordination. ;
  • In the meantime, there can still be coordination between agencies producing and using data for disaster management and emergency response. MoHA can convene an information management or GIS working group. This group will coordinate data management activities, share data, develop standards, and work toward there being no duplication of efforts.
  • Army, APF, NGOs (KLL, Nepal GIS Society), Survey Department and ICIMOD are important players.

Data availability and sharing

  • “One Nation-One Map” policy to promote the preparation of base line thematic layers including hazard and risk maps at highest possible resolution and scale by respective agencies in a time bound manner.
  • Policy document and related actions to convince key ministries to invest in earth observation and geospatial information, which leads to faster economic growth.
  • Data access should be explicitly addressed in high level policy or strategy. Then technology can easily be put in place to facilitate data access.
  • Organisations like DWIDM, DHM, DMG needs clear mandate and strategic guidance from MoHA to undertake hazard/risk mapping.
  • A portal for discovering national data assets is needed, regardless of whether or not data may be shared freely, for cost, or not at all. This will reduce duplication of effort.
  • Overarching plan to generate spatial data is needed (land use, soil, hydro-geomorphology, water resources, socio-economic etc.)

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Capacity building should be guided by a strategy that addresses long-term capacity building needs;
  • Use of in-house institutions to offer regular capacity building programmes focused on space technology applications in specific themes and upcoming innovations;
  • Develop technological capacity or set up a dedicated centre that would provide technical support to NEOC; and
  • Ensure trained staffs remain in their positions within the government department allowing them to focus on specific technical skills to leverage remote sensing and GIS in support of DRR and DM.
  • Capacity existing in other institutions such as ICIMOD can be used as a valuable resource to maintain capacity within the government.
  • Explore opportunities for Public-Private Partnership

Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction

  • Critical role by NEOC in facilitating hazard, and risk maps using Earth observation;
  • National mission guiding the use of geospatial technology in disaster management include inventory, monitoring, spatial analysis and modeling and developing GIS-based tools for hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis.
  • Establishment of a technical centre within NEOC which can be partly manned by staff from stakeholder ministries. This centre should be able to coordinate and use information generated by all stakeholder agencies during all stages of disaster management; and
  • For disaster risk reduction, preparation of hazard zonation maps, early warning and mainstreaming guide lines are considered as key areas to focus.
  • DRR should be a key component of sustainable development (SDG) and integrate climate change adaptation.

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • The existing early warning system (EWS) should be strengthened by building expertise on advanced applications of Earth observation (reference ICIMOD efforts);
  • There is an urgent need to build capacities for multi-hazard use of EWS, where information (thematic maps, risk maps etc.) generated from satellite images can be integrated with early warning information; and
  • Strengthen capacities in providing more accurate and localized early warning information that can be used for local disaster preparedness and response at the community level.

Strengthening emergency response

  • Develop routine mechanism to use Earth observation to provide situational awareness to support NEOC and ensure coordinated and effective response during emergencies;
  • NEOC should become an Authorised User of the International Charter for Space and utilized Sentinel Asia facility at ICIMOD;
  • Prepare SOPs for acquisition and utilisation of space based information during emergency response (Reference: WG in UN-SPIDER Conference 2015)
  • The training and mock drills on routine basis to enable stakeholders to make good use of international support
  • Information sharing channels during emergencies should be clarified in the legal and strategic documents developed by MoHA
  • Cross train geospatial professionals with DM –the two are largely treated as independent functions.
  • Basic map reading and land navigation skills must be taught across all entities involved with DM, particular within the response community
  • Prepare and implement a geospatial strategy and NSDI under leadership of MoHA, in close collaboration with main players;
  • Develop an institutional capacity development strategy;
  • Prepare and implement a plan to address Priority 1 of Sendai framework by developing methods identify risks, hazards and vulnerabilities using geoinformation; and
  • Prepare and implement a plan to address Priority 4 of Sendai framework for Disaster Reduction: 2015-2030 by developing SOP to use earth observation for enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response.

Actions identified during debriefing at Ministry of Home Affairs on the 5th day of the TAM

  1. Re-start planning to develop an NSDI. Under the leadership of the Survey Dept, but with the active participation of all concerned agencies and partners. (governmental and Non-governmental agencies)
    1. Strengthen DRR portal to host relevant data related to DRR
  2. TAM to suggest innovative approaches in capacity building for mainstreaming Space tech in DRR and DR
  3. Enhance existing partnerships to maximize the use of space tech at EOC.
  4. Suggest mechanisms for using space technology to identify and address vulnerability. (focus on more accessible technology –not high-tech)
  5. TAM to recommend ways to strengthen DRR, perhaps through strengthened partnership with academic partnerships.
  6. TAM to share our observations on capacity of the different agencies of the GoN.
  7. UN to explore ways to support the GoNin efforts to improve the use of space technology for DRR.
  8. Support awareness raising activities at the very senior government level on the benefits of GIS and remote sensing in DRR (and beyond). TAM can share lessons learned
  9. TAM to suggest ways to better manage and use information in support of emergency response operations. (i.e review DRR Portal)
  10. Establish an executive and technical committee under the leadership of NEOC. (or the to-be-established NDMC)
    1. Executive committee to look at policy and mandate issues
    2. Technical committee to coordinate data collection activities, identify data sources, and establish data standards and guidance.

Zambia - Technical Advisory Mission

UN-SPIDER and its team of experts carried out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Zambia from 26 to 30 May 2014. The TAM was conducted upon invitation of the Office of the Vice-President, Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit (DMMU).

Main Hazards: 

Dates: 

Mon, 26/05/2014 to Fri, 30/05/2014

Mission Profile: 

The team met with about 15 key stakeholder agencies in the country including the Survey Department, the Meteorological Service or the National Remote Sensing Centre. The experts took stock of issues such as policy gaps, availability of satellite data and geospatial information for all relevant institutions, the current use of in the country, and data sharing practice. The team also looked at challenges and constraints, existing capacity and further training needs, established institutional linkages and ways to strengthen disaster risk reduction and emergency response at the country level.

As a first follow up of the TAM, information was shared on data collection and very high resolution data acquisition options, seeing the high interest of the host institutions to work immediately on the implementation of the agreed recommendations. Meetings were also extended to various UN agencies with disaster-management responsibilities locally, and presentations on best practices were made at a workshop at the end of the mission.

A one-day workshop introduced participants to the potential of space-based technologies for disaster management and to best practices, and looked at options to improve their usage in Zambia.

Mission Findings: 

Zambia is in many ways advanced in its use of technology and its ability to use geospatial data. Its main needs are to set up a national spatial data infrastructure, to expand data-sharing, and to obtain access to regular Earth observations and high-resolution data from public and commercial sources.

Mission Recommendations: 

  • To collect additional remote sensing data and analysis for early warning;
  • To collect weather information in real time and to set up a denser network of weather stations to provide more accurate and timely information about the local situation;
  • To compile climate change resiliency information and related plans;  
  • To set up flood plain and risk mapping and an early warning system for floods; (e) To develop flash flood modelling and prediction capabilities;
  • To build capacity for remote sensing and the geographic information system and raise awareness, making optimal use of low-cost approaches and free data sources, applications, technologies and services;
  • To set up a fire warning system, recruit more fire watch staff and acquire more fire watch facilities and modelling tools;
  • To collect specific upper atmospheric data and models;
  • To develop a national high resolution digital elevation model;
  • To promote access to radar imagery and develop related processing capability.

 

Mongolia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), Government of Mongolia, UN-SPIDER supported NEMA and stakeholders organisations in strengthening disaster risk management and emergency response by effective use of space based information including data sharing, National Spatial Data Infrastructure, policy level interventions and capacity.

Main Hazards: 

Dates: 

Mon, 11/08/2014 to Fri, 15/08/2014

Host Institution: 

National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)

Mission Team: 

The team of seven experts, under leadership of the UN-SPIDER, visited Mongolia from 11-15 August 2014. The mission team represented following organisations: UN-SPIDER/UNOOSA, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC), University of Georgia, Airbus Defence and Space, Asia Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO). Some of these organisations are already engaged with organisations in Mongolia in the area of disaster management and space technology.

Mission Profile: 

During this five-day mission, the mission team visited seven Ministries and Government agencies and three United Nations offices to carry out in-depth discussions. On 15 August, the Workshop “Use of Space Technology in Disaster Risk Management” was organized. About 40 officials representing various ministries/departments, institutions, and academia attended the workshop. The workshop generated awareness among a larger group of stakeholders in Mongolia, and sought their inputs on current challenges in using in disaster management.

Mission Findings: 

  • Mongolia has invested heavily in Earthquake Early Warning Systems and needs to strengthen its’ efforts towards disaster risk reduction as well as to be equipped with adequate capacity, skills and infrastructures;
  • Local government agencies are heavily involved in emergency response activities;
  • The laws, policies and plans related to disaster management are well thought out and entrusts the apex agency for emergency response and disaster risk reduction;
  • Government is focusing on disaster risk reduction to reduce losses due to disasters;
  • Many organizations are implementing several projects with national and international partners using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies;
  • There are a few good examples of agencies using RS/GIS but they are based mainly on coarse resolution satellite images.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy and Coordination

  • Geo-spatial data policy should be formulation and implementation, as well as the NSDI initiative at the provisions in existing law and policy;
  • Space-technology usage for disaster protection activities should be considered in the State Policy on Disaster Protection;
  • Geospatial agencies should focus on using spatial data and remote sensing for disaster risk reduction and response;
  • An effective data sharing policy should be formulized before the satellite launched

Data access, availability and sharing

  • Data requirements and coordination should be clearly addressed in the procedure of emergency response;
  • Promote the data sharing platform and mechanism at national level and local level;
  • Take advantage of International/regional mechanism for data access among key agencies in Mongolia

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Building capacity to use remote sensing data and data products among stakeholder organizations in Mongolia;
  • Data providing agencies may require an upgrading of their skills and staff needs additional training on server based technologies;
  • Sentinel Asia facilities needs a team of remote sensing/GIS Experts;
  • Assessing the availability and accessibility of international is recommended.

Strengthening DRR Decision making

  • DRR decision making calls for balanced effort to address issues with respect to stages of disaster management and related activities should be further linked to climate change issues involving space based information ;
  • Long term analysis should be conducted on a regular basis;
  • More detailed hazard assessments maps are needed for operational purposes;
  • Mechanisms should be established for allowing for rapid data sharing with minimal administrative action;

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • Risk prone areas should be identified for better preparedness and remote sensing should be incorporated into early warning and preparedness activities;
  • Existing ground based infrastructure for early warning should be complemented with extended remote sensing programmes;
  • GIS based information systems need to link to remote sensing data portals at provincial offices;
  • Satellite based drought early warning information should be seen as a priority.

Strengthening emergency response

  • Increased capacity is needed for managing other international mechanisms;
  • Key stakeholder agencies should discuss ways to get the right information products suitable for large scale disaster response;
  • Spatial information products should be accurately expressed that expected to receive from other institutions and enhance GIS facilities with high resolution images and large scale;
  • Technical agencies should consider seconding their staff to coordination organization during an emergency.

Bhutan - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the Department of Disaster Management (DDM), Ministry of Home and Civil Affairs (MoHCA), Royal Government of Bhutan, UN-SPIDER organized a Technical Advisory Mission to Bhutan to evaluate the current and potential use of in Bhutan and to strengthen all aspects of disaster risk management and emergency response through better access to space-based information.

Dates: 

Mon, 02/06/2014 to Fri, 06/06/2014

Host Institution: 

Department of Disaster Management (DDM)

Mission Team: 

The mission team comprised seven experts: Shirish Ravan (UNOOSA/UN-SPIDER, China), Karma Lodey Rapten (UNDP, Bhutan), Rajan Bajracharya (ICIMOD, Nepal), Lingling Li (NDRCC, China), Stefan Keinberger (University of Salzburg, Austria), Hari Prasad Vajja (ADPC, Bangladesh) and Satya Parkash Katyal (ISRO, India).

Mission Profile: 

Over the course of five days, the mission team conducted several meetings with key government agencies and institutions accompanied by the UN agencies involved. As part of the Technical Advisory Mission, a one-day workshop was conducted on the penultimate day of the mission. The workshop was attended by about 30 officials representing various ministries and departments of the Royal Government of Bhutan as well as numerous institutions. The workshop sought to generate awareness, address issues and suggest areas where can be utilized to support the disaster management cycle. During the course of the TAM, the mission team held several discussion sessions to reflect upon their findings to compile the assessments and develop a set of recommendations. On the final day, the team concluded with debriefing sessions with Mr. Chhador Wangdi, Director of DDM, MoHCA, and Ms. Christina Carlson, UNRC in Bhutan.

Mission Findings: 

The mission team was made very much aware of the high priority placed on disaster risk reduction by the Bhutan Government. The importance of disaster risk reduction is echoed as one of the 16 National Key Results Area (NKRA) of the Royal Government of Bhutan for the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) running from 2013 to 2018.

The Disaster Management Act rightly identified the need of Hazard zone mapping, maps and risk assessment. Thus, the mission team noted the DDM’s strive forward to build technical competence to perform tasks like hazard and risk mapping, assessing vulnerability and providing an efficient response during emergencies.

The mission team highlighted that the Department of Disaster Management (DDM) is well positioned to support the disaster risk reduction mandates of Bhutan’s National Disaster Management Authority as the department is currently perceived by stakeholders as the coordination agency. While capacities to use space-based and geospatial information exist in several stakeholder departments, the DDM needs to be strengthened with the appropriate technical capacity and supporting mechanisms to coordinate with stakeholder agencies and develop national programmes.

In addition to several agencies using space technology to prepare map products for disaster risk management, there are various organisations implementing projects with national and international partners using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology which are directly or indirectly contributing to disaster management. The coordination of these activities could be further strengthened to make available a wealth of spatial information.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy, Coordination and Cooperation

  • Formulation of geo-spatial policy related to disaster risk management, which may evolve finally into a National Spatial Data Infrastructure policy for the country
  • The Disaster Management plans and policies should incorporate the use of and geospatial technology in Disaster Management
  • A common approach and strategy is needed to define key concepts and terminologies to enable the reduction of disaster risk with a link to climate change adaptation and the pillars of Gross National Happiness (GHP) should be coordinated by Department of Disaster Management (DDM)
  • DDM should further strengthen tools and instruments to coordinate activities, capacities, projects and funds in the context of disaster risk management in Bhutan

Data access, availability and sharing

  • DDM should enumerate its data requirements and coordinate with stakeholder agencies for systematic generation data products required for disaster risk reduction decision making
  • Remote sensing data coverage for the entire country on medium resolution and specific areas on high resolution is required to enable generation of geospatial layers required for disaster risk reduction
  • Satellite data requirements for Bhutan should be streamlined through a single agency to enable judicious utilization of funds. All departments can make use of this data
  • DDM should use CGISC as a platform to plan strategies data needs to address current information gaps for disaster risk reduction

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • A capacity building strategy should be developed to address long-term capacity building needs of DDM and its key stakeholders
  • An institution within Bhutan (for example, College of Science and Technology, Royal University of Bhutan) needs to be enabled to offer regular capacity building progammes
  • Key agencies in Bhutan should be further linked to regional and international networks (e.g. such as GSDI, GEO etc.)

Strengthening disaster risk reduction decision making

  • The DDM has a critical role to play in establishing mechanisms which allow rapid data sharing with hazard and to ensure that risk maps produced by stakeholder agencies are of national standard
  • The DDM needs to leverage and expand capacities of stakeholder organisations so that they develop products needed for disaster risk reduction
  • Risk and mapping should be carried out initially on a pilot basis to develop methodologies and later these methodologies should be applied at the national level. Specific ‘national missions’ should be initiated through DDM to prepare national and sub-national hazard, vulnerability and risk mapping (in a phased manner based on priorities).
  • Disaster risk reduction activities and related interventions should be further linked to climate change adaptation and the objectives of Gross National Happiness.

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • The DDM should embed early warning from Bhutan Department of Hydro-Meteorological Service (DHMS) in the risk management plans. Currently, early warning is a standalone element at DHMS, and therefore its benefits to responders at the field level and communities at risk are not fully exploited.
  • The DDM should develop capacities to improve multi-hazard early warning by integrating inputs from DMHS, the Department of Geology & Mines, the National Statistics Bureau and other agencies
  • The DDM should play an important role in tailoring/downscaling early warning information to serve decision makers and population at stake (use community-based disaster risk management programme as a base).
  • The DDM should integrate early warning information in a Disaster Management Information System (DMIS).

Strengthening emergency response

  • DDM should work closely with ICIMOD, which is Data Analysis Node of Sentinel Asia
  • DDM should become an Authorised User of the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters
  • UN-SPIDER may help DDM to access satellite images through its network in case of disasters when the International Charter and Sentinel Asia is not activated.
  • DDM should consider having bilateral arrangements with India (SAARC Framework), Japan, and China to source satellite images during emergencies as well as during normal situations.
  • Integration of satellite images with DMIS during emergency response for decision making.
  • Information sharing channel and calls for “Standing Orders during emergencies” should be clear.

Nigeria - Technical Advisory Mission

The Government of Nigeria through its National EmergencyManagement Agency (NEMA) requested UN-SPIDER to conduct a Technical Advisory Mission to assess the use of in disaster management in Nigeria and to identify areas of improvement in the access to this kind of information and in the capacities of working with it.

Dates: 

Mon, 13/06/2011 to Fri, 17/06/2011

Host Institution: 

National EmergencyManagement Agency (NEMA)

Mission Team: 

The mission team consisted of seven experts representing the Regional Center for Training in Aerospace Surveys (RECTAS), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the UN Country Team Nigeria and UN-SPIDER, as well as staff from the two hosting institutions, namely the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA). The latter hosts the UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office in Nigeria.

Mission Profile: 

After a mission team meeting, the experts visited NEMA and NASRDA, including visits to the COSPAS-SARSAT mission control center and the satellite ground control facilities of the Nigerian Space Agency. In the course of the TAM, a stakeholder workshop was organized that brought together more than 100 experts of the Nigerian disaster management community. The workshop was also covered by national television and print media. Furthermore, a technical workshop took place at the premises of NEMA, focusing on the 2010 floods in Sokoto state as a case study with the aim of analyzing the institutional capacities and cooperation of the stakeholders. The setting helped identify strengths and available opportunities in the country and also spurred discussions on perceived limitations and challenges. Visits to individual institutions gave insight into their access to and use of . The institutional visits were followed by a debriefing to the Director General and other high-ranking staff of NEMA, which was the requesting government agency of the UN-SPIDER mission.

Mission Findings: 

In the follow-up to this TAM, the Nigerian UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office will be of particular importance and play a leading role in shaping new developments. A standard outcome of such a mission is a report that summarizes the observations and recommendations from the TAM and that is submitted to the national Government. These reports serve as a base for national authorities to develop policies and an action plan to improve the use of and of geo-databases for disaster management in the country. UN-SPIDER is committed to facilitate the implementation of the recommendations through its partners and the network of Regional Support Offices.

Solomon Islands - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the Government of the Solomon Islands, UN-SPIDER carried out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) from 24 to 28 September 2012. The goal was to evaluate the current and potential use of in all the aspects of Disaster management and strengthen disaster risk management in the country by providing better access to space-based information for disaster risk reduction as well as response.

Dates: 

Mon, 24/09/2012 to Fri, 28/09/2012

Host Institution: 

National Disaster Management Office (NDMO)

Mission Team: 

The mission was headed by two experts from UN-SPIDER and included experts from UNEP, UNDP, the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), York University, Planet Action, the China National Space Administration and the Regional Centre for Mapping and Resources Development (RCMRD), which is one of the UN-SPIDER Regional Support Offices in Africa.

Mission Profile: 

The mission began with pre-TAM discussions of the mission team with the National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) of Solomon Islands. The mission team visited several offices during the first three days. These meetings provided an insight to these agencies' roles in the national disaster management processes with an emphasis on space-based and geospatial information. Additionally, a one day workshop was conducted, which was attended by 25 persons from the government departments, UN agencies, NGOs and private companies involved in using geospatial technologies for disaster management. The workshop included presentations from various Solomon Islands Government departments and the mission experts. The second half of the workshop was dedicated to a brainstorming session inviting the participants to contribute to improving the use of space technologies in disaster management. The workshop was effective in generating awareness and getting valuable inputs to strengthen space technology in disaster management. On the last day, the TAM team briefed the Director of NDMO on their findings, which led to a discussion about follow up actions in the near future. The observations and recommendations will be compiled in the form of a report which will be shared with the Solomon Islands Government and UN organisations.

Kenya - Technical Advisory Mission

Kenya experiences a number of natural hazards, the most common being weather related, including floods, droughts, landslides, lightening/thunderstorms, wild fires, and strong winds. In the recent past these hazards have increased in number, frequency and complexity. UN-SPIDER carried out a Technical Advisory Mission to Kenya to evaluate the current and potential use of in all the aspects of disaster and disaster risk management.

Dates: 

Sat, 01/03/2014 to Sat, 08/03/2014

Host Institution: 

National Disaster Operations Centre (NDOC) and National Space Secretariat (NSS)

Mission Team: 

The mission team was comprised of nine international experts:

 

Mr. Coen Bussink (UN-SPIDER, Vienna), Ms. Longfei Liu (UN-SPIDER, Beijing), Ms. Leslie Armstrong (U.S. Geological Survey), Mr.Ned Dwyer (Coastal and Marine Research Centre, University College Cork, Ireland), Mr. Gabriel Yesuf (Regional Centre for Training in Aerospace Surveys, Nigeria), Mr. Andries Jordaan (University of the Free State, South Africa), Mr. Franck Ranera (Airbus Defence and Space, France), Mr. Michael Hagenlocher (University of Salzburg’s Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics - Z_GIS, Austria), Mr. Wu Wei (National Disaster reduction Centre of China, China).

 

Mission Profile: 

The mission team met with 19 national and international institutions based in Kenya. These meetings provided insight in the role of each organisation in disaster management and in the use of space-based and geospatial information in the country. In addition, the team organized a one-day workshop on the premises of UN-SPIDER’s Regional Support Office RCMRD, which was attended by over 50 participants from the academia, ministries, emergency services and international organisations.

The workshop included presentations by NDOC, NSS, RCMRD and by all experts of the TAM team. Group discussions were held inviting the participants to think about the current and potential use of space technologies in disaster management. The workshop was effective in generating awareness about possible applications of space-based technology and the potential for cooperation between different agencies.

On the last day of the mission, the TAM team provided a briefing on the findings of the mission to the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government of Kenya.

The observations and recommendations will be compiled in the form of the report that will be presented to the Government and could be used for the drafting of the National Policy for Disaster Risk Management.

Mission Findings: 

  • There is a good basis for a national spatial data infrastructure in Kenya;
  • There are a number of strong early warning systems using geospatial data, especially data about droughts and floods in specific areas;
  • There is excellent capacity for using up-to-date Earth observation and geographic data at several institutions;
  • There is a need for capacity-building;
  • Not all agencies use satellite-based communications and navigation technology.

Mission Recommendations: 

  • Disaster management and contingency plans can benefit from the incorporation of space-based and geospatial information;
  • Cooperation and sharing of data and information between institutions could be strengthened;
  • A national spatial data infrastructure is an important step towards increasing the generation and use of spatial data;
  • Focal points and the role of institutions in the use of international mechanisms (International Charter on Space and Major Disasters and the Copernicus Emergency Management Service) for acquiring Earth observation data and products should be clarified in order to access these resources;
  • Adequate management of data and metadata within the relevant institutions should be ensured;
  • Institutions that need to strengthen their capacities could take advantage of the knowledge available at local universities and public institutions;
  • Training courses should be conducted to strengthen the skills of staff in geographic information system units, including courses on remote sensing applications for disaster-risk assessment and emergency response.

Malawi - Technical Advisory Mission

Malawi is a country frequently affected by floods, epidemics and droughts. In October 2013, a UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission was carried out upon the request of the Government in Malawi in order to assess how the country could improve its disaster risk management and emergency response capabilities using satellite information. The Mission followed up on a UN-SPIDER Expert Meeting conducted in November 2010.

Dates: 

Mon, 14/10/2013 to Fri, 18/10/2013

Host Institution: 

Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DoDMA)

Mission Team: 

UN-SPIDER invited seven experts with a broad range of expertise and diverse backgrounds in the space-technology, disaster management and crowd-sourcing sectors to join the two UN-SPIDER experts on the mission team. The experts represented various United Nations agencies, academia and international as well as national organisations: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Humanitarian Open Street Map (HOT), French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER), Technical University Vienna, Group on Earth Observation (GEO), Regional Centre for Mapping and Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the National Disaster Reduction Center China (NDRCC).

Mission Profile: 

The team met with key national, international institutions and organisations in Malawi to discuss the current use of and technology in the country. A one day national workshop conducted on 18 October 2013 brought together over 40 participants and stakeholders from the academia, ministries, departments, NGOs and international organisation. A wide variety of subjects were addressed including remote sensing applications for disaster risk management, land use planning for disaster prevention, the added value of satellite-derived soil moisture assessments, the benefits of sharing geospatial information, the regional efforts for spatial data infrastructure and the need to access existing international mechanisms that make available satellite information and products to support emergency response.

Ghana - Technical Advisory Mission

Ghana is exposed to floods and droughts as well as to forest fires. In order to assess the potential to use effectively to respond to or to prevent these events, UN-SPIDER carried out a Technical Advisory Mission to this Western African country. The mission was conducted upon invitation of the government of Ghana and follows up on a UN-SPIDER Expert Mission carried out in October 2008.

Dates: 

Mon, 25/11/2013 to Fri, 29/11/2013

Host Institution: 

National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)

Mission Team: 

The mission team comprised ten experts from various institutions including UNOOSA, United Nations University (UNU), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), National Space Research and Development Agency (NASDRA), MetOffice UK, National Disaster Risk Reduction of China (NDRCC), Secure World Foundation and the University of Free State.

Mission Profile: 

The mission was conducted through visits to different national and international institutions and organisations involved in disaster risk management, emergency response and the use of satellite data. These included various governmental departments and ministries. Additionally, UN-SPIDER organised a national workshop on 28 November 2014. More than 40 stakeholders from academia, ministries, emergency services and international organisations were introduced to applications of remote sensing for disaster risk management including flood mapping. They were also informed about existing international mechanisms such as the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" that make available satellite information for support emergency response as well as on NADMO's role in the coordination of disaster management in Ghana. Various group discussions allowed participants to exchange on the current and potential use of space-based technology and the role for disaster management in each organisation. The mission was wrapped up with a debriefing of NADMO staff and its national coordinator presenting main observations and recommendations made by the mission team.

Mission Findings: 

  • Disaster Management Plan and Contingency Plans are in place but the crucial role of geospatial information needs to be enhanced. The National Disaster Management Authority recently started to build capacity for working with geospatial information
  • National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) is already on the agernda of relevant authorities and organisations in Ghana
  • There is a need for an permanent operational Geographic Information unit for disaster response, with 24/7 alertness capacity
  • Ghana already has a great national as well as regional capacity on Space technologies and geospatial information. This support should be used for improvements in the use of for disaster management.

Mission Recommendations: 

  • Prioritize the potential of space based information and geospatial data at policy making level
  • Establish a centrally organised National Spatial Data Infrastructure to support the work of NADMO
  • Raise awareness of the availability of satellite imagery, e.g. through the International Charter Space and Major Disasters
  • Explore the use of open source Geographic Information System/Remote Sensing software
  • Make use of existing international partners: ITC, FEMA, Universities, UN-SPIDER

Mozambique - Technical Advisory Mission

Mozambique is exposed to weather-related hazards such as floods, droughts, and storms, which include tropical cyclones. As much as 25% of the population is at risk from natural hazards. The National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) and UNDP Mozambique requested UN-SPIDER to carry out a Technical Advisory Mission from 8 to 12 October 2012. The key objectives of the mission were to assess national capacity and to evaluate existing disaster and risk reduction activities, policies and plans with regard to the use of space-based technologies and to facilitate access of national institutions to to support tasks contemplated in the full cycle of disaster management.

Dates: 

Mon, 08/10/2012 to Fri, 12/10/2012

Host Institution: 

Mozambique National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) and UNDP Mozambique

Mission Team: 

The team comprised nine experts: Dr. Shirish Ravan (UNOOSA, Beijing Office), David Stevens (UNOOSA, Vienna Office), Dr. Stefan Kienberger (University of Salzburg, Centre for Geoinformatics, Austria), Prof. Dr. Talbot Brooks (Delta State University, Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information Technologies, USA), Alex Fortescue, (Southern Mapping, South Africa), Prof. Dr. Chris Hartnady (Umvoto, South Africa), Wolfram Lange (Center for Natural Resources and Development (CNRD), Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Germany), Dr. Kennedy Masamvu (Southern African Development Community – SADC) Botswana, Prof. Dr. Jackson Roehrig, (Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Germany).

Mission Profile: 

Meetings were held with key stakeholders within the government, associated departments/ agencies, and UN offices. In total, twelve different institutions were interviewed as part of a needs assessment process. The results of these meetings were augmented with information gained through a one day workshop organized by UN-SPIDER, INGC, and UNDP on 10 October 2012. The workshop brought together more than 45 representatives from various government/ United Nations and academic entities to discuss cross cutting issues related to use of geographic and for disaster risk reduction and emergency response.

Mission Findings: 

The Mission Team observed the following:

  • Disaster Management Plan and Contingency Plans are in place providing an opportunity for using geospatial information
  • Coordination mechanism for disaster management is available (CTGC) which brings in different ministries/departments working with geospatial information
  • A simulation exercise carried out annually provides an opportunity for the integration of geospatial products including satellite images
  • Organizations expressed willingness to improve the coordination efforts
  • Information sharing policy is not available which limits data sharing. No current discussion on the need to establish a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NDSI)
  • Different ministries and departments are involved in the mapping and maintenance of various thematic datasets
  • Several institutions are involved in international projects involving space-based and geospatial information, which calls for stronger need for coordination and data sharing
  • CENACARTA is mandated to provide baseline data (topographic maps, vector layers and satellite data) - baseline data needs to be updated. CENACARTA and INE are also obliged by existing policies to generate revenues
  • Lack of awareness about the use and existence of geospatial data (need to improve dialogue)
  • Capacities to use Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems exists within several organization
  • INGC needs capacity to make use of the thematic data provided by different institutions
  • Awareness and appreciation at decision-making level is required

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy and Coordination

  • Update Disaster Management Plan and Contingency Plans to make provisions to incorporate space-based and geospatial information
  • Policy interventions to define clear cooperation and information sharing mechanism between data provider organisations and user organisation
  • Establishment of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure should be taken up on top priority to ensure optimisation of use of existing resources. To share international NSDI best practices is seen as an important cornerstone to further build on
  • Effort to have in place professional body bringing together geospatial experts

Data status and availability

  • Creation and implementation of infrastructure for data sharing should be a top-priority for governmental institutions. NSDI should cover a road map for data creation, data management, metadata, standardization and quality
  • Data creation needs to be streamlined to generate up-to-date geospatial information based on existing mandates of various organisations
  • Data management needs to be reframed to provide uniform access to all humanitarian and developmental organisations. Metadata should be considered as an important component of the data management
  • Awareness of the use of open-source software and open data should be strengthened

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Enable stakeholders of INGC (members of CTGC) with on-the-job-training to impart specific skills  
  • Train-the-trainer in specific domains of risk, hazard and mapping (Develop national capacity to generate critical mass of trained personnel)
  • Forum to generate awareness (workshop, technical committee, associations) to engage various levels of decision makers

Other recommendations

  • A Disaster Management Information System is needed to ensure integration of all information and providing meaningful inputs for decision making
  • Ensure access by INGC to mechanisms that make available during emergency response: such as the International Charter Space and Major Disasters, SERVIR and GEO-EMS are the key mechanisms that need to be used effectively during emergencies

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