Flood

Dominican Republic - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As a follow-up to the two preceding advisory support missions to the Dominican Republic, in 2010 and 2011, UN-SPIDER conducted an Institutional Strengthening Mission and organized a one-week training course to strengthen the remote sensing capacities of the inter-institutional Geo-Spatial Information Team for Risk Management to derive flood-related information from satellite imagery. The training course was organized with the National Emergency Commission and three regional support offices: IGAC, CATHALAC and CONAE and took place from 13 to 17 May 2013.

Dates: 

Mon, 13/05/2013 to Fri, 17/05/2013

Host Institution: 

Dominican Republic National Emergency Commission (CNE)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

The training that was part of the Institutional Strengthening Mission included lectures and hands-on sessions which were provided by experts from CATHALAC, IGAC and UN-SPIDER. Topics included: introduction to remote sensing for disaster risk management and emergency response; acquisition of satellite data and useful data products for flooding; pre-processing and supervised and unsupervised classification of multispectral images; calculation of indices and change detection with multispectral images; introduction to radar data; use of digital elevation models for hydrologic modelling; use of thermal data for change detection; and introduction to the web portal.

Disaster type: 

Bangladesh - Institutional Strengthening Mission

From 12 to 16 May 2013, as a follow-up to the UN-SPIDER technical advisory mission to Bangladesh in 2011, UN-SPIDER conducted a Institutional Strengthening Mission and organized a capacity-building programme on the topic of space technology for flood hazard mapping, flood forecasting and rapid mapping in Bangladesh. The programme was jointly organized with the Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme of the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief.

Dates: 

Sun, 12/05/2013 to Thu, 16/05/2013

Host Institution: 

Bangladeshi Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme, Bangladeshi Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

The training that was part of the Institutional Strengthening Mission and took place from 12 to 16 May 2013 covered a wide range of topics such as an overview of the role of Earth Observation in disaster management, the regional plan of action on promoting Space and GIS applications for disaster risk management and sustainable development, global and regional flood hotspot assessment, flood hazard/risk mapping, multi-hazard risk and assessment, flood inundation mapping using multi-resolution satellite data, flood response rapid mapping etc. Participants were also offered hands-on sessions to develop skills in mapping and modelling floods. A total of 20 officials from 17 government departments in Bangladesh participated in the programme. 

Disaster type: 

Recommended Practice: Disaster Preparedness Using Free Software Extensions

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Remote sensing technologies can support all stages of the disaster management cycle. In the prevention and preparedness phases, they often find their application in risk assessments, scenario modelling and early warning. This UN-SPIDER Recommended Practice explains how remote sensing data about recurring floods, information about infrastructure and socio-economic data can be integrated using free and open source software to support prevention and preparedness efforts. It makes use, among others, of the InaSAFE plug-in for the desktop GIS software QGIS to estimate the number of people and infrastructure potentially affected by a 100-year flood. The resulting insights can be used to contingency planning and related efforts before a disaster strikes.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The objective of this step-by-step procedure is to identify potentially damaged buildings and streets, as well the number of potentially displaced persons for two different flood events in Africa. This information can be used for future contingency planning and to improve the design of preventive measures.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Earthquake
  • Flood
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanic Eruption

Test Site: 

This Recommended Practice has been applied to flood scenarios in Mozambique and Ghana.

Context: 

The presented QGIS plug-in was developed jointly by the Indonesian Disaster Management Organization (BNPB), the Australian Government and the World Bank (GFDRR). It was created as free and open source software (FOSS) and is available in the QGIS plug-in library. The use cases provided on the website of InaSAFAE are primarily related to disasters in Indonesia such as floods in the city of Jakarta. For this Recommended Practice, two use cases in Africa have been chosen. The first one focuses on a past flood event in Beira, Mozambique, whereas the second one addresses the larger area of Accra, Ghana, and makes use of a 100-year returning flood layer from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) of the Joint Research Center (JRC) of the European Commission (EC).

Applicability: 

Both case studies provided show several options to adapt the calculations to other case studies. However, the plugIn does not give the exact number of people as the calculations are rather basic. This allows for faster processing, but also means that values are only an estimate of the expected damage and never an exact number. This practice should raise awareness about risk prevention and provide incentives to improve preparation and planning processes.

Sri Lanka - Institutional Strengthening Mission

UN-SPIDER conducted a Institutional Strengthening Mission in Sri Lanka from 24 to 28 April 2017. Th ISM was a follow-up to the technical advisory mission to Sri Lanka in 2011. Both the original mission and the follow-up activity were hosted by the Ministry of Disaster Management of Sri Lanka and its associated Disaster Management Centre.

Dates: 

Mon, 24/04/2017 to Fri, 28/04/2017

Host Institution: 

Sri Lanka Disaster Management Centre

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

As part of the ISM, UN-SPIDER and the Disaster Management Centre conducted a three-day training course at the recommendation of UN-SPIDER for the members of the rapid mapping inter-institutional team established by the Centre. The mission also provided an opportunity to participate in the first meeting of the Advisory Board for the National Risk Assessment Project that the Disaster Management Centre was conducting. In addition, the mission enabled to further its efforts to provide technical advisory support to Sri Lanka; to make government agencies, universities and non-governmental organizations aware of the UN-SPIDER knowledge portal and its contents, including specific recommended practices relevant to Sri Lanka; to raise awareness of the usefulness of the Standard Vegetation Index and the Vegetation Condition Index in drought early warning efforts. Following the successful model of the Dominican Republic and countries in Central America, UN-SPIDER recommended the establishment of a technical inter-institutional team that could focus its efforts in the processing of satellite imagery to generate relevant and timely geospatial information. 

Disaster type: 

Lao People's Democratic Republic - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As part of the technical advisory support it provides to countries worldwide on accessing space-based information for disaster management and emergency response, UN-SPIDER carried out an Institutional Strengthening Mission to Lao People’s Democratic Republic from 18 to 22 March 2019 upon the request of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This activity was jointly organized by the United Nations platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).

Dates: 

Mon, 18/03/2019 to Fri, 22/03/2019

Host Institution: 

Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Experts from two UN-SPIDER Regional Support Officer – the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) – contributed to the mission.

Mission Profile: 

The mission was a follow-up activity to the UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) conducted in July 2015 that assessed use of space-derived information in all aspects of disaster management and offered recommendations to strengthen the disaster risk management and emergency response in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. UN-SPIDER had organized one a previous follow-up activity and ran  capacity-building programmes on “Space-based Technologies Exploring the Use of Earth Observation Data and Modeling Tools in Flood Risk Mapping and Flood Early Warning” in July 2016.

During the five-day mission, UN-SPIDER contributed to an ASEAN Workshop on “The Application of Geospatial Information on Statistic Data for Sustainable Development”. The workshop offered a forum to strengthen capabilities of ASEAN countries in using geospatial information to develop statistical data needed for SDGs indicators.

UN-SPIDER also conducted a three-day national training programme on “Earth Observation-based Mechanisms and Tools for Assessing Flood Risk and Rapid Response During Floods” with contributions of experts from IWMI and ADPC. The training included simulation exercises based on the activation of the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” during a dam collapse in Lao PDR in July 2018. This exercise the skills of participants in analyzing and utilizing emergency response maps produced through the Charter mechanism. It strengthened the voluntary community LaoNGUM (Lao National Geospatial Information Utilization and Management), which had been established in 2016 with interventions from UN-SPIDER, and reinforced the need of close coordination among geospatial professionals and end users. In addition, theory and hands-on sessions were conducted in utilizing optical and microwave remote sensing data in assessing flood risk and preparation of rapid response maps during flood situation. Twenty-five participants from key ministries and the National University attended the training programme.

The team of experts also visited Mr. Sanya Praseuth, Member of Parliament and Vice President of the Economic, Technology and Environment Committee of National Assembly of Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The discussions assured the commitment of Lao People’s Democratic Republic to using Earth observation for sustainable development and disaster management.

Disaster type: 

Myanmar - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As part of the technical advisory support it provides to countries worldwide, UN-SPIDER carried out an Institutional Strengthening Mission to Myanmar from 11 to 15 March 2019 upon the request of the government. This activity was jointly organized by UN-SPIDER and the United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat), under auspices of the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettle­ment (MSWRR) of Myanmar. It was hosted by the Emergency Operation Centre (EOC). 

Dates: 

Mon, 11/03/2019 to Fri, 15/03/2019

Host Institution: 

Emergency Operation Centre (EOC)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Representatives from UN-SPIDER, the United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat), the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettle­ment (MSWRR) of Myanmar, the Emergency Operation Centre (EOC), the Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and Maxar.

Mission Profile: 

The mission was a follow-up activity to the UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) conducted in March 2012 that assessed the use of space-derived information in all aspects of disaster management and provided recommendations to strengthen the disaster risk management and emergency response in Myanmar. Before this follow-up activity, UN-SPIDER organized three such activities and offered capacity building programmes on “Geo-informatics for Disaster Risk Management in Myanmar” in November 2012, “Use of Earth Observation Data and GIS Techniques for Landslide Hazard Mapping” in June 2016 and “Post Disaster (Earthquake) Rapid Damage Assessment” in March 2017.

During the five-day mission, UN-SPIDER held a high-level advocacy meeting at ministerial level and carried out two training programmes, one for 25 officials of the Department of Disaster Management (DDM) of MSWRR and one for 25 officials from key line ministries.

Mission Outcome: 

The training for DDM staff provided an overview of the use of space technology in disaster risk management, the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” and coordination during an emergency situation. The course strengthened the skills of EOC and DDM staff in analyzing maps and making use of emergency response maps produced as part of International Charter activations.

The training for officials from key line ministries was more comprehensive and covered a wide range of theory and hands-on session for using Earth observation technologies and tools for flood and earthquake disaster response.

The five-day-long institutional strengthening mission improved the capacity of using space-based technologies for sustainable development and disaster management of more than 50 participants and deepened the engagement of UN-SPIDER with MSWRR, EOC, United Nations agencies and other stakeholders in the country.

Disaster type: 

Tunisia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of, and in coordination with the National Civil Protection Office of Tunisia, UN-SPIDER is conducting a Technical Advisory Mission to Tunisia from 4 to 6 March 2020 to identify the needs of the country to fully take advantage of space-based information for disaster management. In order to discuss the use of space-based information for risk and disaster management to subsequently make recommendations on improvements, the expert team meets with key disaster management authorities in the country.

The mission is conducted with the support of experts from the Algerian Space Agency (ASAL); the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA); the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA); the National Observatory of Athens (NOA); and an expert on the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. The mission team is also benefiting from the support of the Chief of Space Applications of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.

As part of the mission, the team of experts will visit several institutions including the National Office of Civil Protection; the Directorate General for Forests of the Ministry of Agriculture; the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar; the National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia; the National Institute of Meteorology; as well as at the Ministry of Local Affairs and Environment. Meetings will also be conducted with representatives of the National Cartographic and Remote Sensing Centre of Tunisia and other organizations. In addition, the TAM team will meet the United Nations Country Team in Tunisia, which supports disaster management efforts in the country.

During the TAM, a workshop with over 20 participants from nine institutions will take place in order to present the UN-SPIDER programme to Tunisian counterparts involved in disaster management, and encourage inter-institutional cooperation and sharing of geospatial information among them.

UN-SPIDER aims at ensuring all countries have the capacity to use all types of space-based information to support risk and disaster management efforts. To make sure that all interested stakeholders can benefit from this information in the most effective way possible, UN-SPIDER provides Technical Advisory Support to Member States through missions such as this one.

The Algerian Space Agency (ASAL), the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) and the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) are UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office.

Dates: 

Wed, 04/03/2020 to Fri, 06/03/2020

Host Institution: 

National Office for Civil Protection (ONPC), Ministry of the Interior of Tunisia

Country/Region: 

Mission Team: 

  • Alexandru Badea, Romanian Space Agency (ROSA)
  • Kamel Tichouiti, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL)
  • Alexia Tsouni, National Observatory of Athens (NOA)
  • Francoise Villette, Expert on Earth observation and disaster management, and on Copernicus EMS
  • Luc St-Pierre, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)
  • Coen Bussink, UN-SPIDER (Head of Delegation)
  • Radu Botez, UN-SPIDER

Mission Profile: 

Three-day mission with a stakeholder workshop that brought together 21 participants from 13 Tunisian institutions, in addition to the mission team.

AttachmentSize
PDF icon Tunisia TAM - Data sources booklet969.11 KB

Recommended Practice: Flood Mapping and Damage Assessment using Sentinel-1 SAR data in Google Earth Engine

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

SAR-based flood mapping is a standard and reliable method for determining the extent of major floods. SAR can penetrate cloud-cover, operate in any weather conditions and provide timely and crucial information about one of the most frequent and devastating natural disasters: flooding. Too often limited technical know-how separates the disaster community from the information they need; this Recommended Practice provides a near real-time, cloud-based and easy-to-use method for flood extent mapping, designed to overcome technical limitations.

Without the need for downloading large and complex data, this cloud-based Recommended Practice completes all analysis without taking up hard drive space or processing power of the end-users’ device. By inputting the provided code and simply outlying the region of interest as well as the before and after dates, this methodology produces in seconds what a GIS user may take hours to complete.

As one of the most common natural disasters, flooding affects nearly every place on the globe. In addition to the 100 people who lose their lives, flooding destroys $8 billion annually, creating major problems for both first responders and disaster managers to address after a disaster strikes. This Recommended Practice not only creates a quick and usefully outline of floods but overlays that with land use and population information to instantly output statistics such as area of cropland and number of population within the damage areas.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

This Recommended Practice aims to be a simple and quick tool for users of any experience level to create information about flooding. The code is to be input into Google Earth Engine and run according to the area and dates specified by the user. After the process has run, the code will create a delineation of flood extent using SAR data and change detection methodology. The code will also produce information about cropland, urban areas and population density exposed. The code can be run with little-to-no user knowledge of GIS or coding; the code provided has a description of each tool it uses to create the end information, as well as an overview of the strengths and limitations of the product. Additionally, this Recommended Practice can also serve as a base code for more experienced users to alter and create a better tool for their individual disaster needs.

 

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Flood

Test Site: 

Beira, Province of Sofala, Mozambique

Context: 

On 14 March 2019 Cyclone Idai made landfall in Mozambique. The storm caused massive flooding across wide stretches of the country. By 28 March 468 people had died from the disaster and an additional 136,000 were displaced. Worries grew as, in addition to major population centers, the central states – which produce roughly half of the country’s food – were heavily affected. Both lives and crops were lost, and disaster managers were facing tough problems on how best to confront rescue and response across the region. In this context, quick and accessible information is critical for the disaster community to build a comprehensive plan on how to respond rapidly so that more communities, crops and lives aren’t lost as the country works to rebuild. This Recommended Practice is built to be used as a tool to provide that information.

Applicability: 

This tool can be used to provide a comprehensive overview of a flood, across any size area of interest – from small communities to states. In addition to the outline of flood areas, this code produces information about farmland affected to better plan for food security concerns after a disaster. Additionally, data about major population centres are highlighted by this tool, providing information to be used by rescue and response operations; however there as this methodology is meant for broad information provision in a global context, there are inherent uncertainties in this methodology which are discussed further in this Recommended Practice, it is important that this tool not be used as the only source of information for rescue response planning. 

This tool is built to provide instant and near real-time information about flood extent, as well as cropland and urban areas affected. It can be used in any areas affected by floods globally. It works independently of weather and can be used with little-to-no GIS or coding experience.

Recommended Practice: Flood Hazard Assessment

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Flood hazard assessments are critical to identifying areas at risk and taking relevant preparation and mitigation measures to address the hazard. Using the HEC-RAS 2D model for preparing flood hazard maps, this Recommended Practice explains how to identify flood-prone areas and exposed infrastructure. Through its focus on the prevention and mitigation stages of the disaster management cycle, it complements the Recommended Practice on Flood Mapping and Damage Assessment with Sentinel-2, also developed by SUPARCO.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to carry out a flood hazard assessment, identify potential flood-prone areas and potentially affected infrastructure namely roads, settlements, agriculture and in-land areas etc. against a flood hazard of particular return period i.e. 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. This information can be used by disaster management agencies and other stakeholders to plan flood rescue, relief and mitigation activities.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Flood

Test Site: 

River Indus (Chashma Barrage D/S to Taunsa Barrage U/S).

Context: 

The practice was initially applied to the 2010 floods in the Swat River, Pakistan, and was later on used for probabilistic flood hazard assessments in the Swat valley, Pakistan.

Applicability: 

This practice can be applied to the two dimensional (2D) riverine flood events having unsteady flow dynamics in any part of the world. However, calibration parameters may vary within country or region due to the river bed and floodplain geomorphology.

Recommended Practice: Use of Digital Elevation Data for Storm Surge Coastal Flood Modelling

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Storm surges and tidal waves are global phenomena that considerably affect human populations in coastal and island regions. According to the Guide to Storm Surge Forecasting published by the World Meteorological Organization in 2011, storm surges can be defined as “oscillations of the water level in a coastal or inland body of water in the time range of a few minutes to a few days, resulting from forcing from atmospheric weather systems. According to this definition, the so-called wind waves, which have durations on the order of several seconds, are excluded”. Storm surges are a coastal phenomenon triggered by strong winds in the oceans and seas due to tropical cyclones and other similar weather systems at sea.

Tsunami modelling, sea-level rise studies and storm surge hazard mapping have been done using deterministic and probabilistic models. However, deterministic models require precise oceanographic data, as well as data on bathymetry in the coast, coastal geometry and high-resolution digital elevation models in the coastal area and ancillary data on surface roughness in coastal areas. In many developing countries these data sets are not available.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

This Recommended Practice allows users to visualize the geographical extent of coastal flooding or sea level rise on local, regional or global scale (depending on the resolution and accuracy of the incoming digital elevation model). It can be used exclusively as a first approximation to determine areas that are prone to inundation and can serve as a first assessment for further, more in-depth analysis of coastal flood and sea level rise assessment. The Recommended Practice is developed using the World Digital Elevation Model (WorldDEMTM) product of Airbus Defence and Space. For the sake of clarity - the Recommended Practice has not been developed for any other use and purpose than the above described one and is consequently not usable for and in navigation, any hazardous environment requiring error free performance.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Flood
  • Severe Storm

Test Site: 

Larger Accra region, Ghana

Context: 

The coastal region of Ghana was heavily affected by tidal waves in June 2017. Many people have been displaced and houses, infrastructure and fishing gear (boats, nets) have been destroyed. This Recommended Practice can be a first assessment to apply further analysis to identify safer ground for relocation of exposed communities. For more information please refer to following link provided by the National Disaster Management Organization of Ghana (NADMO): http://nadmo.gov.gh/index.php/archive/13-nadmo-articles/71-nadmo-tours-areas-affected-by-tidal-waves.

Airbus contact:

For any questions related to Airbus disaster management applications using Earth Observation technology or WorldDEMTM product, feel free to get in touch with the authors:

Ciro Farinelli

Future SAR Programs Manager, Airbus Defence and Space / Intelligence

ciro.farinelli (at) airbus.com

Nora Meyer Zu Erpen

Application Developer, Airbus Defence and Space / Intelligence

nora.meyer-zu-erpen (at) airbus.com

 

Applicability: 

The model can be applied to any coastal region of the world.

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